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Full text of "New illustration of the sexual system of Carolus von Linnaeus : comprehending an elucidation of the several parts of the fructification ; a prize dissertation on the sexes of plants, a full explanation of the classes, and orders, of the sexual system ; and the temple of flora, or garden of nature, being picturesque, botanical, coloured plates, of select plants, illustrative of the same, with descriptions"

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In Eastern Language high and mighty Potentates are 
compared to lofty Trees which afford Food and Shade to the sun-burnt 
Traveller. In the more temperate Regions of the Earth, Kings and 
Princes are contemplated as the Sun, which sheds his benign Radiance 
every where, inspiring each Object with new Life and Refreshment : 
by the Concurrence, therefore, of all Nations, the great Attribute of 
Sovereignty is Protection-, from conferring of which by Your Most 
Gracious Majesty, the Science of Botany in Great Britain chiefly 
owes its present Advancement ; and this NEW ILLUSTRATION of 
the SEXUAL SYSTEM of the great LINNAEUS, its Foundation; 
which in Point of Magnificence is intended to exceed all other Works 
of a similar Nature on the Continent, and to be not only a National 
Honour, but an Eternal Memorial of that Patronage which is granted 
to Botany by Your Most Gracious Majesty. From the unbounded 
Protection, so liberally bestowed by an august King, and the best of 
Queens, all the ufeful and ornamental Sciences, with the pleasing Arts 
of Painting, and Engraving, have reached their pre-eminence ; nor have 
the English Nation less reason now to be proud also of their superiority 
in Type and Paper. 

Whilst the honourable Exertions of a great Nation have been 
lately concentrated to embellish and illustrate the Fancy of Poets, or 
Sacred and Historic Truth ; the Science of Botany, advanced as it is 
by Linnaeus, and subsequent authors, and by the glowing imaginations 


of modern Poets, who have improved on Ovidian Metamorphosis, 
seemed, likewise, to have a claim to enlist the fine Arts into her 


In the humble hope, that this Work, which in its progress has 
received the smile of the munificent Alexander, Emperor of Russia, 
will not be found altogether unworthy of your Majesty's countenance, 
and deeply impressed with the highest consideration of that Honour 
graciously conferred upon me by your Majesty's most generous 

I have the Honour to subscribe myself, 


With the highest Gratitude, and profoundest Veneration, 

Your Majesty's most obliged, devoted, 

And dutiful Subject, 




-— - 


t LOWERS, although apparently so diversified, consist but of Jive Parts : 

1. 1 ne rl ST I LLU M, in tile Centre, 1 Both projecting bodies, being extensions according to Linnaeus, 

II. The Stamen, exterior to this/ J the first of the v ith > and the other of the wood - 

The Pistillum is discriminated by a swollen base, which is the seed-vessel, or Germen, 
which being opened discloses the seeds. The Stamen is discriminated by having a part 
which forms the pollen, or coloured farina, called an Anther by botanists. 

A perfect Pistillum is composed of three Parts/ 

1. The Stigma, at top, rarely absent, though sometimes obscure/ 

2. The Style, elevating the Stigma, not absolutely essential/ 

3. The Germen, or seed-vessel, always present/ 

A perfect Stamen is composed of two Parts : 

1. The Anther, at top, containing the fertilizing pollen, always present. 

2. The Filament, elevating the anther, not so essential, being absent in some flowers/ 

For the protection and nourishment of the Sexual Organs of vegetables, (viz. the Pistilla 
and Stamina) Nature has furnished two other Parts. 

111. 1 lie L/OROLLA, interior, J Both expanded bodies, being expansions, according to Linnaeus, 

YY The Calyx exterior/ f tne ** rst °^ tne ^ ar ^» anu " lnc latter of the rind. 

These are discriminated not only by their respective situations, but by the greater delicacy of 
the Corolla compared with the Calyx, which last is usually green. These parts are not 
absolutely essential, some Flowers being destitute of one, 1 or both of them. 

As an appendage to the Corolla/ there is found in some plants, 

V. The Nectarium, for the secreting, and containing of honey. 

Vegetable Inpregnation is thus performed. The farina secreted by the anthers of 
flowers, passes on the stigma of the pistillum, and is there absorbed, and carried to the seeds, 
which it renders fertile, as is confirmed by numerous observations and experiments. 

a The Pistillum is very conspicuous in the White Lily, and in the Night-blowing Cereus, as also in the American Aloe. 
b The six Stamina are seen extremely well in the White Lily and Aloe, as arc also the five stamina in the Blue Passion-flower. 
e The Wliite Lily furnishes an example of a. perfect Pistillum, as also the Night-blowing Cereus. 

* As in the Meadia. It is extremely distinct in the Tulip, Lily, and Passion-flower. 

e Vide the plate of Tulips, where you will find a Pistillum in the centre without the Style, also the Poppy, whose Stigma is like 
a Parapluis. The Style is very conspicuous in the Lily, Cereus, and Passion-flower. 

f For This Part vide the Aloe, Cereus, Lily, and Passion-flower. 

g Vide the plate of the Canna. The Filament is very observable in the Lily, Aloe, Cereus, &c. as well as the Anther, with its Pollen- 

h These Two Parts are finely displayed in the Blue Passion-flower, the Calyx of that climbing plant having a hook at the 
extremity of the back of the five leaves, constituting the Calyx.— Vide also the Meadia, Cereus, &c. 

■ The lilaceous tribe have no Calyx: see the Superb Lily; vide also the Begonia. 

* The radiance, or glory, of the Blue Passion-flower is a fine example of the Nectarium ; vide also the cup of the Renealmia 
and Limodonun. 


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The term Calyx, like our words, horse, bird, dog, habitation, is a generic word, including 
several distinct kinds, thus : 

I. Perianth (Perianthium), is the outer expanded covering of a flower,.. .the most common 

kind of Calyx,... usually green,... sometimes coloured,... contiguous to the corolla,... pro- 
tecting the organs for reproduction in their infant-state,... sometimes caducous,... often 
abiding with the fruit,... and sometimes even serving the office of pericarp,... usually single, 
...occasionally double,... not unfrequently very obscure,... or wholly deficient. 

II. Involucre (Involucrum), is a calyx remote from the flower,.. .most commonly stationed 
at the foot of a general, or partial, umbel. 

III. Spathe (Spatka), a species of calyx, which first involves the infant-flowers like a sheath, 
and then opens longitudinally. 

IV. Glume (Ghana), the outer valves, or husk of corn, or grass, enclosing one, or more, 


V. Ament (Amentum), small chaffy scales, protecting the florets placed on a thread-like 
common receptacle. 

VI. Calyptra (Ca/yptra), the covering of a moss, placed over it, like a cap or bonnet. 

VII. Volve (Volva), a membrane, which involves the fungus in its infant-state, and which 
afterwards appears in a lacerated form on the foot-stalk. 

Botanical Terms* applicable to the Calyx. 

Peculiar (Proprius), belonging to a single flower... .Common (Communis), common to 
several flowers.... Beneath (Inferus), placed beneath the Germen.... Above (Superus), above 
the Germen.... Monophyllous (Monophyllus) , consisting of one leaf....DiPHYLLous (Di- 
phyllus), of two leaves.... Tr i phyllous (Triphyllus), of three leaves.... Tetraphyllous (Tetra- 
pkyllus), of four leaves, and so on to Polyphyllous (Polyphyllus), composed of many leaves. 
...Intire (Integer), having the border, or edge of the leaf even.... Toothed (Dentatus), cut 
into teeth.... Partite (Partitus), divided into segments.... Re flexed (Reflexns), bent back.... 
Imbricated (Imbricatus) , having the leaves placed over one another like the tiles of a house. 

* All or most of these terms are illustrated in our " Picturesque Botanical Plates," and are more fully explained in our " Philosophy of 


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Ihe term Corolla is a compound idea, made up of several distinct notions, as 

I. Bell-shaped {Campanula fa), hollowed internally like a bell, often ventricose, or swollen 

at the sides, and without a tube. 

II. Wheel-shaped {Rotata), slightly hollow, or the border flat, and with so little tube as to 

resemble a wheel on the ground. 

III. Funnel-shaped {Infundibuliformis), having the border of the Corolla like a cone, and 
placed upon a tube, so as to resemble a funnel. 

IV. Salver-shaped {Hypocrateriformis), having the corner of the Corolla flat, and placed 
upon a tube, resembling a salver. 

V. Ringent (Ringens), having the border of the Corolla like two lips, and these open, 

placed upon a tube, resembling a person gaping. 

VI. Personate {Personata), having the border of the Corolla like the lips, the mouth 
closed, greatly resembling the snout of an animal, also placed upon a tube. 

VII. Tubular {Tubularis), when the floret of a compound flower ends in a tube, the border 
being five-cleft. 

VIII. Li gu late {Ligulata), when the Corolla of the floret is linear, i. e. resembles the 
strap of a shoe. 

IX. Cruciform {Cruciata), having four petals, placed like a St. Andrew's cross. 

X. Rosaceous {Rosacea), having five, or more petals, not fleshy, orbicularly placed. 

XI. Liliaceous {Liliacea), having six, or more petals, fleshy, placed also in a circle. 

XII. Papilionaceous {Papilionacea), having four petals, of different shapes and sizes, placed 
so as to resemble a butterfly on the wing. 

Botanical Terms applicable to the Corolla. 

Monopetalous {Monopetala), composed of one petal only....PoLYPETALOUS {Polypetala), 
composed of two or more petals.... Simple {Simplex), not a compound flower.. ..Compound 
(Composita), made up of distinct florets on a common receptacle. ...Rayed {Radiata), having 
tubular florets in the disk or center, and ligulate in the ray or circumference. ...Tubular (7w- 
bularis), having florets ending in a tube.... Ligulate {Ligulata), having the petal linear like a 
strap... Regular {Regularis), with all the parts proportionate.. ..Irregular {Irregularis), having 
all the parts disproportionate. ...Ventri cose {Ventricosa) , swollen at the sides.. ..Conical {In- 
fundibuliformis), like a cone.. ..Linear {Lijiearis), having the sides parallel.. ..Tube {Tubus), 
the inferior narrow hollow part of a monopetalous corolla.... Claw {Unguis), the inferior narrow 
flat part of a polypetalous corolla.... Limb {Limbus), the upper part of a monopetalous corolla... 
Lamina, or Border {Lamina), the upper flat part of a polypetalous corolla.... Banner {Vex- 
ilium), the upper petal of a papilionaceous flower.... Wings {Alee), the side petals of ditto.... 
Keel {Carina), the under petal, shaped like a boat, of ditto.. ..Toothed {Dentata), the edge 
cut into teeth... .Cleft {Fissa), cut into small segments....PARTiTE {Partita), cut into deep seg- 
ments A Segment {Lacinid), the cut portions of the corolla, larger than teeth. 




X he term Nectary, like the Corolla, is also a complex idea, like our words pigeon, dog, 
made up of many different individuals, here indeed too numerous and diversified, to be distri- 
buted under heads, for every singular appearance in different parts of the flower, even uncon- 
nected with the corolla, or whatever is not corolla, whether it secretes honey, or not, is called 
by botanists, the Nectary. 

The following are among the more prominent examples. 

1. A spur, or horn, (Nect. cornicidatum), as in Larkspur (Delphinium). 

2. A small open cup {Cyathus apertus), small hollow cups, circularly ranged in the inte- 

rior of the flower, as in Hellebore (Helleborus). 

3. A cup closed by a lid (Cyathus clausus), a similar arrangement of nectaries, as in the 

preceding, but closed with a lid, as in Devil in the Bush (Nigella). 

4. Like the cut finger of a glove (Nect. companulatum) , hollowed like the finger of a glove 

cut off, but depending, as in Renealmia, Limodorum. 

5. Like a funnel {Nect. infundibuliforme), as in Narcissus. 

6. Like a slipper (Nect. calceiforme), as in Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium). 

7. A simple cavity (Fovea excavata), an excavation at the base of each petal, as in Crown 

Imperial (Fritillaria). 

8. A naked channel (Linea longitudinalis excavata), an hollow longitudinal groove, in a petal, 

as in White Lily (Lilium Album). 

9. Villous projections (Nect. barbatum), numerous villi placed upon the petal, as in some 

species of Iris. 

10. Filaments without anthers, imitating stamina (Filamenta sine antheris, veluti stamina), 

filiform projections like stamina, each terminated with a clasper, as in Arum. 

11. Petal-like (Nect. petalum mentiens), as in Snow-drop (Galanthus), and Trollius. 

12. Resembling a nest of doves (Columbulos referens), five cornuted nectaries, the whole 

resembling much a nest of doves, as in Columbine (Aquilegia). 

13. Resembling Dolphins (Figuram Delphini repmsentans), like a Dolphin elevated on a 

pillar or filament, as in Monkshood (Aconitum). 

14. Like a tongue (Veluti lingua), as in Indian Reed (Canna Indica). 

15. Resembling rays of glory (Filamenta versicolorata in orbem posita), projections in the form 

of rays of glory, as in the several Passion-flowers. 

16. Giving the appearance of various animals (Nect. formam animalium mentiens), as in the 

several Orchises. 

17. A naked scale (Squama nuda), as in Ranunculus and Willow. 

18. A fringed scale (Squama fimbriata), as in Parnassia. 

19. Glands upon the stamens (Glandule jilamentis adsperste), as in Dittany (Dictamnus). 

20. Glands at the insertion of stamens (Glandule jilamentis posita), as in the Stock. 




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1 en different sorts of Pericarps, or Seed-vessels, are enumerated by botanists. 

I. Drupe (Drupa), is a pulpy seed-vessel... encompassing a stone, or nut. 

II. Pome (Pomum), is a pulpy seed-vessel... not enclosing a stone, or nut.. .in the middle of 

which are radiated cells for the reception of seeds. 

III. Berry (Bacca), is a pulpy seed- vessel... without radiated cells in the center... having the 
seeds irregularly dispersed throughout the pulp. 

IV. Follicle (Follicalus) , is a membranous seed-vessel... of one valve... opening longitudinally, 
i. e. on the side... and having no apparent suture for fastening or attaching the seeds 
within it. 

V. Silique (Siliqua), is a membranous seed-vessel... of two valves, with a dissepiment inter- 

vening... seeds attached alternately to the upper and under sutures... seed-vessel longer 
than broad... flowers cruciform. 

VI. Silicle (SUicula), has the same definition as the last... except that the seed-vessel is 
rather broader than long. 

VII. Legume (Legnmen), is a membranous seed-vessel... of two valves... no dissepiment... seeds 
attached to the superior suture only... flowers papilionaceous. 

VIII. Capsule (Capsu/a), is a membranous seed- vessel... varying in the number of valves... 
without the characters of Pericarps IV. V. VI. VII. as defined above... splits in a deter- 
minate manner into valves. 

IX. Nut (Nux), a hard stone, or shell, enclosing a kernel... but without a pulpy covering, 
in which case it would be a Drupe. 

X. Strobile (Strobilus), is a seed-vessel composed of ligneous scales, which embrace the seeds 

within their bosom. 

Terms applicable to the different Pericarps. 

Valves {Valvule) y the external pieces forming the sides of the seed-vessel. .. Sutures (Suturte), 
the edges, or margins, by which the valves are connected... Column {Columella), a central point 
of union of the partitions in the seed- vessel... Partitions (Dissepimenta) , the divisions of the seed- 
vessel into cells... Cells (Loculamenta), hollow places for the reception of the seeds... One-seeded 
(Monospermus)... Two-seeded (Dispermus), and so on. 




SoIJ o £7 f " diVerSUy ° f appearanCe ' " ,at ** camot ' lik <= *e Cvx, 

^atetdiv d , " CA T ^"f^ int0 distin « —-"Wages, but must be presented to ,he 
reader md.vdually, of the following are some of the most striking examples. 

1. A oouble seep kach resembunu a boat (Semen duplex, navieuU formam reprxsentam), as 
in the umbelliferce. 

2. KlDNEY-SHAPED^WITH „ EPTAOON AND p£NTAGON c£lls {R€nifomet cdlui r s i$ ^ h 

goms), as in Poppy-seed {Semen Papaveris). 

3. Ovate (Ovatum), shaped like an egg, as in Eye-bright (Euphrasia). 

4. Globular (Globosum), as in the Pea (Pisum), and Coriander (Coriandrum). 

5. Square (Tetragonum), having four sides, as in Foxglove (Digitalis). 

6. Triangular (Triangulare) , having three sides, as in Tansy (Tanacetum). 

7. Cylindric (Ob/ongum), oblong, as in St. Johns-wort (Hypericum). 

8. Resembling a particular shell (Figuram concha mentiens), as in Wood-sorrel (Oxalis). 

9. Ditto, as in Purslane (Portulaca). 

10. Ditto, as in Cinquefoil (Potentilla). 

11. Resembling the head of a monkey (Figuram cynocephali repmsentans), as in the Cocoa-nut. 

12. A single crown (Corona simplex), as in Ragwort (Senecio). 

13. A double crown (Corona duplex), as in Holy Thistle (Centaurea Benedicta). 

14. A shuttle-cock (Corona pennacea), as in Dandelion (Leontodon). 

Terms applicable to the Seed. 

Aril (Arillus), the outer coat of the seed.. ..Eye (Hilum), an oblong scar, marking the 
place where the seed was affixed by an umbilical cord to the seed-vessel.... Heart (Corcu/um), 
the rudiment of the young plant within the seed.... Plume (Plumula), the ascending part of the 
corcule, or infant stem.... Radicle (Radicula), the descending part, or infant root.... Cotyle- 
dons (Cotyledones), the side-lobes, furnishing nourishment to the corculum.... Seminal leaves 
(Folia Seminalia), the first leaves of the plantule, serving the office of cotyledons, or lobes.... 
Pappus (Pappus), a feathery crown.... Stipe (Stipes), a thread connecting the pappus to the 

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It « certain that the^m of Plants could not altogether escape the observance of the most 

IT T T- I f r 6 ' ^ 6Ven ^ haVC ^ S ° me ^o* of modern tim 
for Nature has furmshed this phenomenon to be contemplated in almost every plant; Z t 
must be allowed, that scarce any one can be found devoid of it 

In the remotest period of time, the Arabians derived their principal support from the Date- 
bk ARING P ALM , the Persians from the Pi STAC „i A NuT , the JLJ2 of the IchfpZi 
from the Fxo and those of Chios cultivated the M.s.xch T.„. In all these it was necessa^ 
to attend to the Sexual Distinction, in order to promote the efficacy of the male as respects the 
female flowers, and hence they could not altogether be ignorant of a circumstance so exceed, 
ingly evident, certainly, as far as regards these trees. 

But if truly we contemplate the fate of Botanical Science, we shall easily discover the rea- 
son why this theory continued so long obscured in darkness. 

The writings of the ancients testify, that Botany was at a low ebb, when Mathematics and 
Astronomy had made considerable advancement. 

After the regeneration of letters, it was the first endeavour of botanists to separate and in 
vestigate amongst the ruins the broken fragments of botanical science; in which endeavour when 
they perceived that not much riches were to be collected, at length they turned their researches 
into Nature herself, and began to describe plants from actual observation, until they were so 
overwhelmed with their number, that they even despaired to number up the species growing 
in their own gardens, especially when both Indies poured in daily so great a profusion, that 
properly to name them all, no memory was sufficient. 

At last, Systematics endeavoured to describe all plants, with regard to their fructification 
and to arrange them into their several companies ; nor have they ceased this attention even to' 
the present time. 

But when these systematic writers were particularly busy about the Corolla, which especially 
courts the eye, and the Fruit, which has the greatest use, it happened that they paid little 
attention to the minuter parts of plants, until they perceived that the larger parts were of them- 
selves insufficient to discriminate so many plants, which daily increased the army of Flora. 

This induced the more modern Botanists to investigate all those parts most minutely, which 
are to be met with in the fructif cation, and they esteemed their labours not unrepaid, 'if from 
thence they could construct true and convenient characters. 

Amongst these the Stamina and Pistilla, although generally small bodies, and on that ac- 
count neglected by former persons with contemptuous pride, were found so important, that there 
is no flower to be met with devoid of these parts. 

a After- 

Afterwards, these corpuscules were esteemed of great moment, and on them particular names 
were imposed ; and, moreover, all the several parts of fructification were carefully described. 

Exactly to pronounce who first discovered the Sexes of Plants would be a task of the greatest 
difficulty, and of no real utility. For many inventions have increased by degrees, just as a 
river, which at first springs from a small rivulet, several of which run into a single channel, till 
at length it becomes augmented so as to bear the largest ships. 

This knowledge of Sexual Distinction cannot be denied to the ancient cultivators of Palms,* 

* Old Parkinson, who wrote his " Theatre of Plants' in 1640, speaking of the Palm, says, " the Date is the fruit of this tree, the best 
kinds are called regia, as being diet fit for kings. The ancient writers have set down many things of the date-tree, < that there are male and 
female, and that to make them bear, they must be near each other, or else they will not bear,' but I pray you account this among the rest 

of their fables." .-•♦*«.- • i j ^ i 

It is worthy of enquiry, whether the ancients really understood the meaning of the distinction of the date-tree into male and female, 

as it is at present understood. Quotations will, I think, settle fully this point. 

O'tuv Mi ri £ft», Mffifov T* *?*&* «V h ro uvSog h&& «<nri e hfr ™" X* ™ " $*** *" ] ™ xmo t T ° v *"7«™a<n *«™ re xocott* m $,- 

Xtluq, xuv Ttsro vaSil, Stetltyi? xu) W uttoZuXXsi. _ 

" When the maZe Palm is in vigour, the spatha is cut, whence the flowers proceed, as soon as it contains the down, flowers, and dust, 
and they shake this over the fruit of the female tree, and from that sprinkling, it turns out, that none drop their fruits, but all perfect them." 
Theoph. Hist. Plant. Lib. it. c. 9. 
How near had Pliny hit the mark! 

« Arboribus, immo potius omnibus qua terra gignat, herbisque etiam, utrumque sexum esse, diligentissimi Naturae scrutatores tradunt : 
nullis tamen arboribus manifestius quam Palmis. Sine maribus non gignere foeminas sponte edito nemore confirmant: circaque singulos 
plures nutare in earn pronas blandioribus comis. Ilium erectis hispidum Afflatu Visuque ipso et Pulrere etiam reliquas maritare: hujus Arbore 
excisa viduas post sterilescere Foeminas. Adeoque est Veneris intellects, ut Coitus etiam excogitatus sit ab Homine, ex Maribus Flore ac 
Lanugine, interim vero tantum Pulvere insperso Foeminis." 

" All trees, or rather in all things which the earth produces, even in herbs, the most diligent enquiries into Nature report, < there be 
two sexes ;' but in none more evident than in Palms. It is confirmed, that the wild female Palms do not produce fruit without the assist- 
ance of the male, and for this purpose the females bend their boughs to him for mutual embrace. He also marries with the other female 
palms by gentle sighings, tender looks, and the dispersion of a powder. This male tree being cut down, the widowed females afterwards 
become sterile. This love in plants has been observed by men who imitate it, and by the scattering of flowers and down of the male, or 
even only by the dispersion of the powder, upon the females." Plinii Nat. Hist. Lib. xiii. c. 4. 

'O is (poTviP Ipu, xui typm, s tip <pomx<§>, ug (pXupsvTTvog Iv ToTg rsupyixoig uvtu ^«r«, xu) a ttpotspov nuwtTut tk vfoe, tug uv 0t»Vj» Ipufisv®* ttu^ol- 
uMpUT* k* 7"P &* to 2'svSpov mmmm*1* *» m *k ov ** lSi '* v &*»> P& xupTroQopw. ™*o v XuvSuvu tov ysupyw, akW ort filv sou xu) iptm Tsxpulps- 
Toa> uyvou is voW ha TrupuTrjopsv^ Qomxuv, V0\\Zv, xu) vuXiv Ut) tft sputru l*WW> xai epa^ev©- T$ yj'S*' &«'" 9*1f*»™ »***(> hotxovsh. jreiv is (pomxog 
\;i xvrv wft& frrpaim tpottov tivu t? tm »*$& xu) tJ rh fcfipr, cog uv riff iiV«i nfou, <rrpog UsTvov yup uttoZxI™, KM Sir" Ixshov *$#& »mp o-Trsvixcru 
Lvrr t v lri$*]u ix* h y(vsTu) Tf ipfa, re ytopyZ Qw$S Wopi* t5 Sjjfrfy x*) r4f *!%«* V* ^(nrA«j>fl©. rv fp^&f f*uX<<ru si XV «A> «W' 
Siro rff Qaru^g tZ «#«&, lfii<ru if TW xi(pot^v rfc Ipuw vruydp W^ati** tov 'e)ujoi, xu\ \omrov \ Qo7v% ay\a%ppivi xuXXtfov xxpvrcv ot&«, 

« Palm trees possess the passion of love, and indeed most ardently, as Florentine delivers in his Georgics, nor can this passion be 
extinguished until they meet. The female in love droops her head, nor is the basis firm, nor does she then produce fruit. This the farmers 
notice, they are conscious she is in love, endeavour to console her, and when she meets with the male plant she loves, she elevates herself, 
and they appear to embrace by mutual kisses. And the male plant also displays his affections, extends his arms, and as it were gazes at the 
object of his love, extends his roots to hers, and thus embraces her. The cure of this love, when the two are at a distance, is applied by 
countrymen, who bring the arms or hands of the lover to his mistress, and thus the male flowers are placed on the head of the female tree. 
This mitigates the wastings from the flame of love, and the rejoicing/emaZe then bears fruit." Geoponic. Lib. X. C. 4. 

Tlefi Kim (pvruv Xtywt vutitq (ro<puv, xcc) pvSov eXeyov tov Xoyov ttvott, el pj vatSts *Xsyov yt^yuv. II Xoyeg' aXXo f*lv aXX^Qvrov tptv. t$ Se Qoivixt top 
%a U Ta. p**Xov lyoxXsh. Xtyvin & tov jxlv afam rm q>omx»v, tov 8s &f*». «£$f» »9 tQ $jXiot lou, *** S?Aa? aTruxKr^svog st V t% t^ furi/a; o-taVii, l^ftii 
h u\\y\v axjotlvSToti. wwfa* oZv ys^yog tJv Xvttw tS (purS" xu) s)g rify t5 x»fi *f»** aVsxSuv, sQotf tt5 HWX». xXlvsTctt y^ slg to IppMtm] xot) fu&m, ^fi- 
prffa ra (PUTS TV votrov. vrcfiw yai t» ^(Xkv q>omxog Xa&w, *c *j» t» a^svog xotoliav XvT^tnv, xu) uvstyvts fiiv tv 4/u^V ™ <puT». to Ji aufM uv&^vnw 
-nuXiv uvi^wnv^(riv y xu) $lans%, %/*&> w ^ t?j souping o-v^ttXoxv' xu) tvto l?i yupog Qvtm. 

" As it respects plants, it is the opinion of philosophers, which otherwise would be esteemed a fable, to which also farmers subscribe, 
that plants are taken in love with one another, and feel all the disappointment of love. They report that there are male and female. The 
female tree desires the male, and if she happens to be at a distance from the male, she pines away. On which account the farmer under- 
standing the malady, as a cure plants the male on a loftier spot, from which he looks down upon his beloved female, inclining to her his 
bouo-hs ; or he places on the highest branch a bough of the male-tree in flower, the sight of which recreates her mind, recruits her dying 
body, and revives her even by a partial embrace. Such are the Nuptials of Plants." Achilles. Tatius. C. 17. p. 88. 

Hence those much admired lines of Claudian, who most happily introduces a notice of this Love betwixt Plants in his description of the 
retreat of Venus into the Island of Cyprus. 

Vivunt in Venerem Frondes, omnisque vicissim 
Felix Arbor amat, nutant ad mutua Palmjb 
Faedera: Populeo suspirat Populus ictu: 
Et Platani Platanis, Alnoque assibilat Alnus. 

Claudian. Epith. p. 177. 

As a confirmation how little the ancients understood the true doctrine of the sexes of plants, Theophrastus mentions a male and female 
Peony and Fern, in which last certainly there could be no knowledge of the sexes in plants. He also expressly calls the fig, vine, and 
pomegranate, female plants in Book I. Chap IX. « Cur Feminae magis Masculi augescunt." " Why female plants grow more than the 
male plants." Aristotle and Pliny also say, " that the male plants differ only from the female plants in being taller, and more vigorous 
withal! It would be, therefore, absurd to attribute a knowledge of the sexes of plants to the ancients. " Ferat Palmam qui meruit." 


, ■■■// Flowar. 





persons equally understood the Sexmt Relationship of the Fig,* and likew 

ise in the 

^:^::;i^:-:x^^^ nantavamr ***-** ** *&^ - .£** where * P ec Uli a r 

p H r;z s ;; c :;; el x^; «: tather of history> r? M dis,in ?* ,he ^^^ ° f ***• »»•»• ^~ 

Lib. XII. Cap. IV. J ^ Same pr ° CeSS Under the t,tle " ^ «'/»'>'""— ." " On tW««</««." PtISII „ IST . Nat . 

the z:zz:; SSwssStt rc!a ; e 'V* ir^," are practiscd at ,his * y in ,i,c ***>**> * »• ** *« 

substance of which is as follows. P " r ° UltJ,EF0RT ' » a *«* <*? before the Academy of Science at Paris in , ;o 5 , the 

^^jSSs^-s^z of thc d rr ic fig T e> : hich arc cu,,iva,cd in France - spain - an<i ^ ** ** ** « - -i.i. 

Wild fig-tree. The econd Tthe H ^ " ° T*' P°" " le °' d <** "** ' hi< * «?"«» «° «**>« fa) Utfo, and Unifies a 

fonuZ, c,, ltit !X a d r ; ^jSrsir?? g "d r r The fo T r !r r c r sive,y ' in *■ *- ** ** so r , s 'of ^ C !L 

These fruits have a sleek Z',TtS g ° , ' '", "' ^ "**? ^^ "^"'^ ,hoSe of < he ^^en-fig. 

placed upon distinct foot H f V^ f ?" Zl T^ " """ ^ ^ ""^ '"^ ^ " ,ale a " d *«« dowels 

^SSsi! thc T d , f,uit ' which is ca,i t ""'"■"■'- x,,cse d ° - ^ sasraassris 

rW th* 7 /°f""«» gradually fall away after the gnats are gone; the cmtilircs, on the contrary, remain on the tree till \l ,v ,n,l in 

Stts wjasesis p r d ,h 7 ,"' r " ,o ^ - ° f "• : " -* ^- ■ ' ;: S2a ; * 

•i.* \ u gg an thc other two; and whcn lt £ rows to a certain s^e, and its bud beffina to onen it i. ^ l \i : 

£ ex ^r xs « rr r are r: h g eno " sh to go f T r to — — *K& &£££: 

this case the h, sh 1 1, , T C ° me ' H '" ^^ ^'^ wMe thC °'"' in th ° Se Ver ? l ,ar,s arc "^Md <° rccciv,- them I„ 

«; ;; : "rr to „ pn d ? y th , c t s -, ,f i ,,ey miss thc mwrtunity ' * ■* ft,, « a - d ,hc ■«• ° f * -SK? 

ay. iNone but those that are well acquainted with thc culture know the critical moment of doing this; and in order to know it their 

hi „; iiTo b u e " f °, n the t ud , ° f ,he % : for that part not ° n,y indicates ,i,c time t,iat ,he ■*■«• - - '-«•-. sa£ w«: 

the fig ,s to be successfully pneked: if the bud is too hard and compact, the gnat cannot .ay its eggs; and the fig drops when the bud Is 

fan* andj u r '1*ft ?T ^T T* ° f ffUit iS t0 "<*" ^ frUit ° f ,1,C garden fig - trCC> in th ° fol,0win S ma,,ner - ^ring the months of 
June and July, thc peasants take the orm, at the time their gnats are ready to break out, and carry them to the garden fig-trees • if .hcv do 

pla^tl ^so IT' "1 *i' T* ** ^ ° f ^ d ° n ' eStiC fig " tree ' " 0t ripeni " g ' "'" '" ' VC ^ ttUe timc dro l> ! " ^ »«»«, The 

SSenfcTn^ d aCqUa ' n tedW ^, ^ese precious moments, that, every morning, in making their inspection, they only transfer to their 
garden fig-trees such on,, as are well conditioned, otherwise they lose their crop. In this case, however, they have one remedy, though an 
inmtterent one; which is, to strew over the garden fig-trees another plant in whose fruit there is also a species of gnats which answer the 
purpose in some measure." 

Linnaeus thus explains the rationale of this practice. « Thc caprificus, or wild fig, is the male plant, and the cultivated fig the female. 
1 he flowers are disposed within the cavity of the receptacle, which is so close shut, that often it will scarce admit the end of a common 
needle through the pore in its extremity. Now thc fig-flies, which are of the ichneumon kind, being transformed, and furnished with 
wings, about the time the farina of the male fig is ripe, make their escape from those male figs, and being wholly covered with their dust, 
alter copulation, they seek for a place to lay their eggs, and flying to every one of the female figs, they enter their cavities, which are filled 
with pistilla from all sides, by which means they must necessarily brush off that farina, or male dust, with which they were covered, and 
thus the seeds are impregnated." It is true, the female fig can ripen its fruit, though thc seeds are not impregnated, because this fruit is not 
tpericarpium, or seed vessel, but only a receptacle : so also the hop, mulberry, strawberry, and blite, can produce fruit, even though 
their seeds do not ripen, because their fruit is nothing but a receptacle or catyx. Some botanists who were ignorant of this, seeing those 
trees produce fruit without previous impregnation, thought they had found an unanswerable argument against the generation of plants ; but 
they did not consider, that the fruit of the fig is not a seed vessel, but a common receptacle. Yet it appears, that the fruit of the fig, if the 
seeds are impregnated, grow to a much larger size than those which are not ; which Tourncfort also observed; for he tells us, that a fig-tree, 
m Franche Compte, where there is no caprification, produced every year only 25 pounds weight of figs ; but that another of thc same size in 
one of the islands of the Archipelago, produced yearly 280 pounds weight of figs, which is above ten times the quantity of the other. This 
age hath clearly refuted the opinion of Camerarius, who maintained that the seeds of figs never produced any plants. For Linnaeus tells 
us, that fig trees are raised every year in Holland from the seeds, provided the fruit is brought from Italy. But if the fruit grew in France, 
England, Germany, or Sweden, where there are no wild Jigs, the seeds produce nothing; on the other hand, if those seeds are sown, which 
grew in Italy or the Greek islands, where the male fig abounds, the plants spring up with case, putting forth leaves, which at first are like 
those of the mallow. The same experiment was tried with good success in the Upsal garden in the year l 7 M." 

Yet still it would be a difficulty for us to imagine, that such refined knowledge was in the breasts of the ancients. 
Tournefort, in explanation of this practice, says, " The prickers contribute to the maturity of thc fruit of the garden fig-tree by causing 
them to extravasate the nutritious juices, the vessels inclosing which they tear asunder, or perhaps too, when depositing their eggs, they 
leave some sort of ferment, which gently agitates the milk of thc fig." 

This is also nearly the explanation of Theophrastus, to whom a knowledge of the sexes of plants- is attributed, in his chapter * De Ca- 
prificatione," on Caprification. " Cum autem morsu crebro culices ora ficuum aperuerint, humorem absumunt supervacuum, et aditum li- 
berum auris praebent, et omni poma spirantia efficiunt." 

" By the numerous piercings of the flies, outlets are made in the figs, by which the superfluous moisture is drained, a free passage to the 
air afforded, and breathing pores effected." Theoph. B. II. C. XII. 

Like some of our modern gardeners, who^re in the habit of applying the male flowers to the female in the cucumber plant raised under 
glasses, in order to ensure a produce ; so the ancients performed the like operation on their palms, pistachias, and figs, and in the same way, 
but without knowing, or even thinking, of the sexes in plants at the time. 


Pistacia,* certainly as far as respects these trees, who always had the custom of suspending 
the male flowers over the female in order to obtain fruit. 

Nor can it be denied that the most undent writers have expressly made mention of the Sexes 
in Plants § But how little true knowledge they possessed upon this subject, and upon what 
slender foundations it was built, appears from this, that they often mention males and females, as 
separate in plants, where no such distinction existed.'}. 

Nay after the revival of letters, even in the last century, Botanists had so imbibed this 
ancient error, that even eminent teachers of the art so badly discriminated the Sexes, that they 
often called that a male which was the female plant,! which cannot better demonstrate their entire 
unacquaintance with the subject. 

m , _ T ,„. r T n rnPHB*sTns o. 401, is thus mentioned by Pliny. " Syria Terebinthum 

* The Turpentine Tree, the Terebenthus Inpica of Iheophrastus, p. wi, ' '. 

^Z^t^'JtX~n!}"i^Si £ — -,** *.■*—*..«. .Wei,,.- u, u. -. 

book, the following passage : 

" Etiam Rhus Syriae mascula fert. sterili fzemina." ,_..., 

- AlTo in Syria I produced the Rhus, or Sumach, *.£. of £*££&* ^ tp^hf i^ sa^ in Agrigento osservai due 

ofThe Plsfachia, or Turpentine Tree, differing from each other, whieh the peasants distinguish by the ft* of male ^female. 

itt^7L"S5.^?W severa! large Pistachia .*** called in Sicilian, Scornabecco, and JJ-jJ-g; 
These tree are of Linneus's Class Dhbcia, Order Pentanpria, and produce m«Ze and /e««/e Jfouer, upon different d.stmct plants. I he 
Ster prove b^en and useless, unless rendered fruitful by the aspersion of ^farina from a male plant, and, therefore, the purposes o ^fe- 
cundity cln only be answered by trees of different sexes being set near eacb other. In these gardens are many of the female kmd, and only 
oneoTthTm" wh ch has smah, oblong, blunt leaves, of a dusky green, the flowers thick, and in bunches ; the /e m «/e b ossoms are more 
scattered thfleav"^ arger, harder and rounder, and of a lighter colour. The male flowers first, and some gardeners pluck them when shut, 
dry them and tewS sprinkle the dust over the female tree. But the method usually followed hi Sidy when the trees are far asunder 
dry them and «««™ P b hes rf the mafe blossoms rea dy to blow ; these are stuck into a pot of moist 

ISIS f^5t^Se!«!i they are quite dry and empty; this operation is caUefl lYa***, and never fails to produce fruc- 

tification " Swinburne's Travels, Vol. iii. p. 386. 2d Ed. 8vo. I790. . 

AkhoughTmay seem to anticipate the train of reasoning of Linn*us, I cannot forbear relatmg here a story respectmg the Turpentine 
Ttpp ^PT^TArHTA Tereb inthus) recorded by Duhamel. 

a^the garden of lf« De - Serre, in the Rue de St. Jaque at Paris, there grew .female turpentine tree, winch flowered every 
year, but whkh furnished him no fruit capable of vegetation. This was a very sensible mortification to the owner, who bemg ignorant of the 
doctrine of the sexes of plants, had laboured very hard to obtain an increase of that tree. 

"■Mess Duhame!. and Jussieu very properly took away all blame from the elements, and prom.sed him they would soon procure him 
the plea^ur 'he dir e " They sent him I male turpentine tree, which was very much loaded with Blossoms It was according to their 
direct'n planted near to the female turpentine tree. That year it produced a great quantity of fruit well conditioned, and such as, when 
nlanted rose with facility. Being removed, his female turpentine tree became barren as before. 

Some gardeners in Sicily, according to Swinburne, have ingeniously contrived the art of budding the male tree upon the female, by 
which means the two sexes are placed together upon the same tree. 

% The ancients certainly had no true knowledge of the Sexes of Plants, as at this day understood, as I have proved in the last note, 
and elsewhere ; this indeed L™us, in the very next passage, seems to admit. Although these facts were thus daily obtruded on their 
senses, inattentive to the structure of flowers, and ignorant of the offices of the several parts, they remained unacquainted with the true 
operations of Nature in this phenomenon, though daily presented to their observation. 

f As the male Peony, male Cistus, male Fern, male Orchis, male Veronica, male Abrotanum, &c. 

t The Mercurialis Perennis, our common Dogs Mercury, is thus described by J. Bauhin. « Ex foliorum alis, famine quidem 
lizul* recta: emicant, tenues, quas verticillatim sen in spica ambiunt flosculi glomerati muscosi, qui in quatuor fohola herb,da sese exphcantes, 
cirros apiculorum luteolorum aut herbidorum ostentant, nulla succedento semine pereuntes. Mari autem ex eisdem ahs breves pedicuh on- 
untur quorum singulis testiculata bursala, nonnihil compressa, hirsutaque insidet, gemina semina includens." Our countryman Kay 
could'not let this pass unnoticed, who, in vol. i. lib. iv. chap. v. " De Mercurial!," remarks, « In hac description J. Bauhinus vulgarem 
oninionem sequitur, Mercurialem sterilem pro fmmina, et fertilem pro mari accipiens: cum e contra rationi consonum s.t et al.arum rerum 
naturalium analog, ut sterilis dicatur mas, fertilis famina. Fccmina enim est in omni genere qua; fetificat et fructum edit. ' In this 
description John follows the vulgar error, taking the barren Mercury for the female, and the fertile as the male : for it is contrary 
to sound judgment, and the analogy of other productions in nature, to call that which is barren, the female ; and that which produces, the 
male The female in all plants is that which swells, and produces seeds." Also in another chapter, when speaking of the Spinach, " vol. 1. 
chap'iv De Spinachia," he corrects again the vulgar error of making "the spiked flowers into the female, and the sessile ones into the 
male, also that the male and female plants were distinct species." His words are " Spinachia/<emm«, scu stenlis, perperam pro specie 
diversa a Casp. Bauhino ponitur, cum ex eodem cum fertili semine proveniat." 






The English report, that their MILLINGTON* was the frst true discoverer of this doctrine, 

* Linnaeus would not have so slightly mentioned this immortal discovery of the Sexes of Plants made by our illustrious countryman 
MILLINGTON, Savilian Professor (probably Scdleian Lecturer on Natural History) at Oxford, and afterwards President of the Royal College 
of Physicians (a name not even mentioned in the Encyclopedia Londinensis, or Biographia Britannica), but henceforth to be esteemed, like 
that of the memorable Harvey, or Jenner, had he been able to read the admirable account written in English of that important discovery, 
as it is given us by the learned Grew, in his " Account of the Anatomy of Flowers, prosecuted with the bare eye, and with the microscope," 
being a discourse read before the Royal Society Nov. 9, 1676, in which he thus clearly explains this matter. 

" The Attire I find to be of two kinds, Seminiforme and Florid. That which 1 call Semi n forme, is made up of two general parts, 
chives and semets, one upon each chive. These scmets (as I take leave to call them) have the appearance, especially in many flowers, of so 
many little seeds; but are quite another kind of body. For, upon enquiry, we find that these scmets, though they seem to be solid, and for 
some time after their first formation, are entire; yet are they really hollow ; and their side, or sides, which were at first entire, at length 
crack asunder: and that moreover the concave of each semct is not a mere \ acuity, but filled up with a number of minute particles, in form 
of a powder. Which, though common to all semets, yet in some, and particularly those of a tulip or a lity, being larger, is more distinctly 

" These semets are sometimes fastened so, as to stand erect above their chive, as those cif larks-heel. Sometimes, and I think usually, 
so as to hang a little down by the middle, in the manner and figure of a kidney, as in mallows. Their cleft or crack is sometimes single, 
but for the most part double: at these clefts it is that they disburse their powders; which as they start out, and stand betwixt the two lip* 
of each cleft, have some resemblance to the common sculpture of a pomegranate with its seeds looking out at the cleft of its rind. This must 
be observed when the clefts are recently made, which usually is before the expansion of the flower. 

" The particles of these powders, though like those of meal or other dust, they appear not easily to have any regular shape; yet upon 
strict observation, especially with the assistance even of an indifferent glass, it doth appear, that they are a congeries, usually, of so many per- 
fect globes or globulets; sometimes of other figures, but always regular. That which obscures their figure is their being so small : in dogs- 
mercury, borage, and very many more plants, they are extremely so. In mallows, and some others, more fairly visible. 

" Some of these powders are yellow, as in dogs-mercury, goats-rue, &c. and some of other colours : but most of them I think are 
white; and those of yellow henbane very elegant, the disbursed powders whereof, to the naked eve, arc w lute as snow ; but each globulet, 
through a glass, transparent as crystal; which is not a fallacy from the glass, but what we see in all transparent bodies whatsoever, lying in 
a powder or small particles together. 

" The use of the attire, how contemptibly soever we may look upon it, is certainly great. And though for our own use wc value the 
leaves of the flower, or the foliation, most; yet of all the three parts, this in some respects is the choicest, as for whose sake and service the 
other two are made. The use hereof, as to ornament and distinction, is unquestionable; but this is not all. As for distinction, though, by 
the help of glasses, we may make it to extend far; yet in a passant view, which is all we usually make, we cannot so well. As for ornament, 
and particularly in reference to the semets* we may ask, If for that merely these were meant, then why should they be so made as to break 
open, or to contain any thing within them ? Since their beauty would be as good if they were not hollow ; and is better before they crack 
and burst open, than afterwards. 

" Other uses hereof therefore we must acknowledge, and may observe. One is, for food ; for ornament and distinction to us, and for 
food to other animals. I will not say, but that it may serve even to these for distinction too, that they may be able to know one plant from 
another, and in their flight or progress settle where they like best : and that therefore the varieties of these small parts are many, and well 
observed by them, which we take no notice of. Yet the finding out of food is but in order to enjoy it : which, that it is provided for a vast 
number of little animals in the attires of all flowers, observation persuades us to believe. For why else are they evermore here found ? Go 
from one flower to another, great and small, you shall meet with none untaken up with these guests. In some, and particularly the sun- 
flower, where the parts of the attire, and the animals for which they provide, are larger, the matter is more visible. We must not think, 
that Almighty God hath left any of the whole family of his creatures unprovided for; but as the Great Master, somewhere or other carveth 
out to all ; and that for a great number of these little folk, he hath stored up their peculiar provisions in the attires of flowers ; each flower 
thus becoming their lodging and their dining-room, both in one. 

" Wherein the particular parts of the attire may be more distinctly serviceable, this to one animal, and that to another, I cannot say : or 
to the same animal, as a bee, whether this for the honey, another for their bread, a third for the wax: or whether all only suck from hence 
some juice; or some may not also carry some of the parts, as of the globulets, wholly away. 

" But this is only the secondary use of the attire. But the primary and chief use of the attire" (anther) " is such, as hath respect to 
the plant itself; and so appears to be very great and necessary. Because, even those plants which have no flower or foliature, are yet some 
way or other attired; either with the seminiform, or the florid attire. So that it seems to perform its service to the seed, as the foliature, to 
the fruit. In discourse hereof with our learned Savilian Professor, Sir Thomas MILLINGTON, he told me, he ■ conceived that the attire 
doth serve as the male, for the generation of the seed.' 

Grew goes on. " When the semet" {anther) " ripens, it lets fall the contained powder" (farina), " which particles of powder" 
(farina) " themselves burst, and let loose a finer powder 1 ( pollen), " which performs the office of male, and being carried to the seed-case" 
(germen) " imparts to the seeds a prolific virtue" Vide Grew's Anatomy, p. I.?ti Nothing, therefore, can be clearer than that both MIL- 
LINGTON and GREW flrst perfectly knew the sexes of plants. 

Doctor Pulteney also, in his " Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany," is willing to grant the merit of this 
great discovery to Grew in preference to Millington. Probably this high merit should be equally shared by both. 

he has prefixed to his " History of Plants," does not mention Sir Thomas Millington's name. Interested as we must suppose Mr. Ray to 
have been, in every discovery relating to vegetables, and candid as he was in his general conduct to the learned, it is not likely that he should 
have failed, in this instance, to render praise where it was so justly due. When we further recollect, that Dr. Grew had been some years 
engaged in those microscopical experiments, on the anatomy of plants, which have rendered his name estimable with all posterity, that whilst 
he was thus employed in studying so intimately the organization of vegetables, and had observed, that in whatsoever parts the flower might 
be deficient, the attire is ever present, is it not strange that the true idea of its use should have been suggested to him ?" 

c if 

if it be allowed to call him an inventor, who understands the thing, but has not taught it in writing. 
They contend that about the year 1676, he saw the whole mystery, and, in truth, not long after, 
GREW and RAY,t both Englishmen, explained this matter farther. 


* It perhaps may be objected to Linnaeus, that he did not clearly comprehend why this discovery is attributed to Millington, but it 
is a known fact, that Linnaeus was unacquainted with the English language, and, therefore, could only receive his knowledge from the 
report of others. The whole story has been fully explained in the last note. 

f Our illustrious countryman Rat was made, by the writings of Grew, a complete convert to the doctrine of the Sexes of Plants. In 
his "Historia Plantarum," " History of Plants," published in 1686, Book I. Chap. X. " De floribus Plantarum, et primo de eorum Par- 
tibus." " The Flowers of Plants and of their Parts." Speaking of the stamina, he expressly says, " Grevius noster non hunc tantum usum 
stamina praestare opinatur, sed et pollinem ilium seu globulos quibus apices praegnantes sunt, qu6sque per maturitatem effundunt, spermatis 
masculini instar seminibus foecundandis inservire existimat ; ac proinde maximam plantarum partem utriusque sexus participem esse. Quod 
non adeo incredibile videri debet, cum et in Animalium gehere nonnulla androgyna observantur, ut v. g. Cochleae terrestres; quamvis quidem 
in seipsis non generent, quo a plantis differunt. Nee obst'at, qubd particular hae (si modb sperma sint aut spermati analogae) in uterum aut 
semina non penetrent, nam et in piscibus externe tantum ovis jam cditis inspergitur genitura, nee in ullo animalium genere, quod sciam, 
ovarium intrat, at ne uterum, quidem ipsum in plerisque, sed solus ejus halitus et effluvia subtilia sufficiunt ad ova foecundanda, et embryon 
intus conclusum vivificandum. 

" Haec si ita sint, non similitudine aliqua duntaxat, sed revera et stricte loquendo sexu differunt plantae illae, quarum aliae semen absque 
flore, aliae (ab ejusdem plantae semine ortae) florem absque semine producunt. Tales sunt in Arborum genere Palma dactylifera, Salices 
pleraeque ex nostra observatione, et secundum Plinium etiam Cedrus major: in Herbarum, Lupulus saliclarius, Cannabis, Cynocrambe, 
Mercurialis, Phyllon, Urtica, Spinachia, Sesamoides Clusii, aliaque non pauca. 

" D. Grevii sententiam magnopere confirmant, quae de Palma dactylifera a Veteribus et Recentioribus traduntur, nimirum foeminas non 
omnino fructificare, nisi mas juxta ipsas consitus fuerit : quin et pulverem maris foeminae aspersum earn foecundiorem reddere. Ni enim 
Mgypt'u hoc fecerint (inquit Prosper Alpinus) sine dubio foeminae vel nullos fructus ferent, vel quos ferent non retinebunt, neque hi matu- 
rescent. At inquies in arenosis et desertis, ubi nemo maris pulverem seu pollinem florum foemineo foetui aspergit, foeminae nihilominus foecundae 
sunt. Immo verb ventorum beneficio, qui pulverem marium foeminis affiant." 

" Our countryman Grew supposes the stamina to perform the office of the male, and that the farina with which the anthers are filled, 
and which separates from them when mature, serves the purpose of fructifying the pistillum, or female; and that the majority of plants are 
bisexual; that is, contain bot h sexes in the same corolla. Not that plants, like the snail, and some other species of animals, are andro- 
gynous, but are sufficient of themselves to produce their kind. Nor is there occasion, that the farina should pass into the gerrnen to the 
seeds, but only an halitus, or subtile effluvia, which is capable of itself to vivify the included embrios. 

" Besides bisexual flowers, there are also others strictly unisexual, having the two sexes apart, for from the same sort of seed there 
shall spring up two plants, whereof one shall bear only stamens or males, and the other only pistils or females. Of this kind are the date- 
bearing palms, according to Pliny the large cedar, and from our own observation many of the willows ; and in herbs, the hop, hemp, mer- 
cury, nettle, spinach, and a great many others. 

u What is reported by the ancients and moderns greatly confirm this opinion of Grew, respecting the date-bearing palm, that the 
females do not fructify, unless the male be placed near them, or the farina of the male be dispersed over the female flowers (Plin. Hist. 
Nat. Lib. 13. C. 4.) Unless the same was performed in Egypt,. without doubt the females would produce no fruit, or what they had they 
would drop, or not ripen (Prosper Alpinus Lib. de Plant jEgypt.) It may be objected that dates are found in uninhabited spots, but 
here the farina is wafted to the females by means of the wind." 

He, however, modestly ends with " Opinio autem haec de usu pollinis praedicti ulteriori adhuc confirmatione indiget ; nos ut verisimilem 
tantum admittimus." u This opinion of Grew, of the use of the pollen before mentioned, wants yet more decided proofs ; we can only 
admit the doctrine as extremely probable." But this was only his cautious manner of writing, as in the following passage, Lib. iv. Hist, 
p. 156. where he treats of Herbs, " quarum fructus a floribus totis plantis distant, seu de Sexu distinctis." " On herbs, whose fruit is pro- 
duced on plants separate from the male flowers, which are produced on other plants of the same kind," he writes "Plantae hac sectione com- 
prehensae, si sexu revera non difFerant, prout nos opinamur, umbram saltern aut similitudinem quandam sexus obtinent, cum in eadem specie 
nonnullae natura steriles sint, et seminis infoecundae ; aliae fertiles et semine praegnantes. Has nonnulli mares vocant, illas foeminas : alii rec- 
tius illas mares faciunt, has foeminas. Semina enim plantarum Animalium ovis respondent, quae foeminae pariunt, non mares. C. Bauhinus 
quas nos sexu tantum diversas statuimus, specie distinctas facit : minus recte ; cum ex ejusdem plantae semine utraeque oriantur: aequo enim 
jure Virum et Foeminam species hominis distinctas facere potuisset." 

" Plants comprehended in this section, if they do not differ in sexes, a doctrine which we maintain, nevertheless they possess at least 
the shade or similitude of sexes, since in the same species of plants some are found barren, produce no seed; whilst others are fertile, pro- 
ducing seed. The latter some have called males, the former females : others, of which number we are, more justly make the barren males, 
and the seed-bearing females. For the seeds of plants correspond to the eggs of animals, and what produces these are called females, not 
males. Caspar Bauhine has made into distinct species, what we have given as only differing in sex, and badly, for from the same seed 
both sexes spring; for with equal propriety might the man and woman be made distinct species." 

" In his subsequent work, u Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicarum." " A Methodical Synopsis of British Plants," published 
in 168Q, p. 52. when making the same class of British plants, where the sexes are distinct, in the proem, he openly declares, u Hinc col- 
ligitur stamina non esse partem otiosam et superfluam, sed potius valde utilem et necessariam. Hinc enim confirmatur sententia opinan- 
tium pulverem in apicibus staminum contentum, spermatis masculini vicem praestare." Hence it may be collected, that the stamina are not 
an idle and superfluous part, but, on the contrary, very useful and necessary. This class of flowers confirms the opinion of those, who teach 
that the dust contained in the anthers of the stamina performs the office of the male." 

I have been the more elaborate in this note to wipe away a very prevailing opinion, that our countryman Ray had doubts respecting the 
seres of plants, because he hinted, as expressed above, that this doctrine should be established by experiments, as is here done by Linnaeus. 
Ray's works throughout evince a true knowledge of the Sexes of Plants, and this doctrine owes much, as Linnaeus allows, to both Grew 
and Ray. 


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1. Flower of Yellow Henbane . 
(Many old j 

2. One of the Florets nuionified , of which there ore .'">. 

J.enden hihlislud bs IYI 'Hwrn/.-n Xfl'KlSoo. 

inieerv Flower entire. 

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or Male vert o/'the flower. 
Tlie natural six, . 

Its tu;> ,\'/Hf',irtm/U.>.,'/Yri 
wifhUiiui the \ eatable f'.vina . 

"Flower -y 'Meeorem ■ 6s ttrye me state. 

Tlit- natural size . 

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'llu- Eiaht Stamino 

te tht- (WelLi. 
bv short fil.mumU. 

Tin- PutiUum in tht Center, 
like a water-bottle, 
the rweUtorperi heme the vegetable womb, 

fir -part itmtainindllit' seeds. 

Grew iii'1 ■ 

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i5. Tafsion flower. 

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lO.Sun -flower. 

W, Convolvulus. 

Geoffrey drl . 

MazA sculp. 

Lendm. Piibhfhfd by D 7 'Thomten. August iSoj. 


CAMERARIUS, * and several others after him,+ have well explained this doctrine: 

(Viola grandiflora, Lin.) presents a prism with four irregular sides, 

* Camerarius, Professor at Tubingen, in his book " De Sexu Plantarum," " On the Sexes of Plants," published in 1694, acknow- 
ledges, " that he first became convinced of the truth of this doctrine by perusing what had been written on this subject by Grew, and after- 
wards by Ray, to whom he attributes the honour of establishing this important discovery." His experiments were only on the Maize, the 
Mulberry, the Ricinus, and the Mercury; the three first of which he deprived of the stamen-bearing, or male flowers, and the last he 
separated from its correspondent female, and found that the seeds produced in each instance did not vegetate. 

• In 1703, Mr. Samuel Morland, desirous, as it should seem, of extending the Lewenhookian system of generation into the vegetable 
kingdom, produced a paper before the Royal Society, in which he advances— that the farina is a congeries of plants, one of which must be 
conveyed through the style into every ovum, or seed, before it can become prolific. He founded his opinion " from observing an opening 
in the anllus, or husk, of the bean, situate near where the plantule is found lodged, which he conceived was formed on purpose for the ad- 
mission of a globule of the farina, which so disposed became the plantule." The refutation of this opinion will presently appear. 

In 1711, was read, " A Dissertation on the Structure and Use of the Parts of Flowers," by Mons. Geoffroy, before the Royal Aca- 
demy of Science at Paris, where several curious remarks on the Farina, and some experiments on the Sexes of Plants, are given. 

Speaking of the farina, Mons. Geoffroy says, " It would be difficult to describe all the different figures of the farina; for however small, 
each corpuscle has a regular, determinate, and constant figure. In the general run this figure is oval, with a groove the whole length, re- 
sembling a grain of corn, or a seed of coffee, as in the Bryony, &c. But, 

1. In that of the St. Johns Wort, Hypericum Vulgare, of Caspar Bauhine's Pinax. (Hypericum Perforatum, Lin.) appear like oval 

bodies, pointed at their extremities, and swelled in the middle. 

2. In that of the Trefoil, Melilotus officinarum Germanize, C. B. P. (Trifolium officinale, Lin.) like a cylinder, having a band running 

its length. 

3. That of the Violet, Viola Montana tricolor odoratissima, C. B. P. 

transparent, and reflecting different forms. 

4. That of the Borage, Borago floribus caeruleis, J. B. (Borago officinalis, Lin.) are likewise cylinders, but compressed in the middle, 

and shining in three different distinct spots. 

5. That of the Comfrey, Symphytum, Consolida major, C. B. P. (Symphytum officinale, Lin.) represents two crystal balls attached 


6. That of the Sycamore, Acer montanum candidum, C. B. P. (Acer Pseudo-Platanus, Lin.) presents a perfect cross. 

7. That of the Lily, Lilium album vulgare, J. B. (Lilium candidum, Lin.) an oblong oval, pointed at both ends, and with a groove its 

whole length. 

8. That of the Jonquil, Narcissus juncifolius, luteus, minor, C. B. P. (Narcissus Jonquilla, Lin.) have the form of a kidney. 

9. That of the Spider-wort, Ephemerum Virginiacum, flore caerules majori, J. R. H. (Tradescantia Virginica, Lin.) resembles a 


10. That of the Euphorbia, Tethymalus Characias angustifolius, C. B. P. (Euphorbia Characias, Lin.) and of the Palma Christi, Ricinus 
Vulgaris, C. B. P. an ovoid figure, with a rising its whole length. 

11. That of the Acanthus, Acanthus rarioribus et brevioribus aculeis munitus, J. R. H. (Acanthus mollis, Lin.) 

12. That of the Spanish Broom, Genista Juncea, J. B. (Spartium junceum, Lin.) are oblong, rounded at their extremities, and has 

two bands, being two luminous eminences. 

13. That of the Tuberose, Hyacinthus Indicus, (Tuberosus, flore Hyacinthi orientalis, C. B. P. Polyanthes Tuberosa, Lin.) swelled in 

the middle, so as to make a prism with three sides. 

14. That of the Campanula Campanula pyramidalis, altissima, J. R. H. are round transparent, with light eminences, and a luminous 
point in the center. 

15. That of the Passion-flower, Granadilla Polyphyllos fructu ovato, J. R. H. (Passiflora coerulea, Lin.) are nearly round, with small 
risings over the surface. 

16. That of the Pink, Caryophyllus sylvestris calidarum regionum, J. R. H. are round, the surface a regular mosaic. 

17. That of the Geranium, Geranium sanguineum maximo flore, C. B. P. round, with a kind of navel, as in the apple. 

18. That of the Pompion, Melepepo compressus, C. B. P. (Cucurbita Melopepo, Lin.) are round, with short pointed eminences. 

19. That of the Sun-flower, and Marsh Caltha, Caltha palustus, have the surface covered with hairs. 

20. That of the Althea riretescens (Lavatera Olbia, Lin.) and the Convolvulus purpureus, C. B. P. (Convolvulus hederacius, Lin.) have 
the surface covered with very short eminences. 

After many observations on the Sexes of Plants, he relates the following experiment. 

I raised several plants of Maize, or Turkey corn, which on the summit of its branch produces male, or stameniferous flowers, and the 
fruit is enclosed in a leafy sheath. 

I removed the stamina with all the care imaginable, as soon as they shewed themselves, and before the pistil liferous flowers appeared. 
Upon most of these plants so served, the spike, after growing to a certain size, dried up, and the grains were withered, or only a few 
grains * attained its proper size, and these, but thinly scattered along the rachis, which might probably arise from imperfect castration. 
The same event occurred to him with the Dog's Mercury. 

As to the manner of the embryo being conveyed into the seed, he accords entirely with Morland. He says, " that the best microscopes 
can never discover the plantule, or embrio, in the early stage of the pistillum, nor even when more advanced, unless the farina has reached 
the stigma of the pistillum." His words are, " En effet, si Ton examine dans les plantes legumineuses, le pistile, ou cette partie qui devient 
la gousse, avant que la fleur soit encore eclose, ct qu'apres Tavoir ddbarrassee des feuilles et des examines, on la regarde au Soleil avec un mi- 
croscope, on y remarque tres aisement les petites vesicules vertes et transparentes qui doivent devenir les graines placees dans leur ordre naturel, 
et dans lesquelles on ne distingue rien autre chose que Tenveloppe ou lecorce de la graine. En continuant d'observer pendant plusieurs jours 
de suite dans d'autres fleurs a mesure qu elles avancent, on remarque que ces vesicules grossissent et se remplissent d'une liqueur claire dans 
laquelle, lorsque les poussieVes se sont repandues et lorsque les feuilles de la fleur sont tombees, on commence a\ appercevoir un petit point ou 

It was a pity he had not tried the experiment of sowing these grains. 


globule verdatre qui y flotte librement. On n'appercoit encore rien d'organise dans ce petit corps, mais avec le temps et k mesure quil grossit, 
on j distingue peu a peu deux petites feuilles comme deux comes. La liqueur se consomme insensiblement a mesure que ce petit corps gros- 
sit ; et la graine etant devenue tout a fait opaque, en l'ouvrant on trouve sa cavite remplie de la petite plante en raccourci, composee du germe 
ou de la plumule, de la radicule et des lobes de la Feve ou du Pois. 

" Si au contraire dans les pivoines a fleurs doubles, qui sont tout a fait denuees d'&amines et de sommets, on examine les graines qu'elles 
produisent, soit qu'elles soient avortees ou qu'elles ne la soient pas; on les trouve vuides contenant seulement quelques membranes dissechees 
et sans aucune apparence de germe, semblables en cela a l'ceuf d'une poule qui n'a point ete feconde. En effet, s'il y eiit eA un germe dans 
ces membranes, n'auroit-il pas du grossir a proportion de ces enveloppes, et devenir tres sensible. 

« En suivant cette conjecture, il n'est pas difficile de determiner de quelle maniere le germe entre dans cette vesicule ; car outre que la 
cavite du pistile s'&end depuis son extremite" jusqu aux embryons des graines, ces vesicules ont encore une petite ouverture pres de leur attache 
qui se trouve a l'extremite du conduit du pistile; ensorte que le petit grain de poussiere peut tomber naturellement par cette ouverture dans la 
cavite ou espece de cicatricule reste encore asses sensible dans la pluspart des graines : on l'appercoit tres aisement sans le secours du microscope 
dans les Pois, dans les Feves et dans les Phaseoles. 

" La racine du petit germe est tout proche de cette ouverture, et c'est par cette merae ouverture qu'elle sort, lorsque la graine vient k 


Next in order follows the boastful Bradley, who published his " New Improvement in Planting and Gardening, both Philosophical and 
Practical," in 1721. He writes, " Mr. Morland has, in Phil. Trans. No. 28/, anno 1703, given us to understand how the dust of the 
apices in flowers (i. e. the male sperm) is conveyed into the germen or vasculum seminale of a plant, by which means the seeds therein con- 
tained are impregnated. I then made it my business to search after this truth, and have had good fortune enough to bring it to demonstration 
by several experiments ; since which, a gentleman of Paris has printed something of the same nature, in the Hist, de V Acad, de Sciences, for 
the years 17 11 and 1712, which were published about ten years ago. 

" But to come to the point ; the lily being a flower more generally known than any other, and its generative organs being large and ex- 
posed, 1 shall from thence endeavour to explain the method which nature makes use of to impregnate the seeds of that and every other plant, 
and by which means the several species of vegetables have been continued to the world. 

" The flower of the lily has six leaves or petals, which are set on upon the summit of the footstalk ; they serve to guard the parts of 
generation from the injuries of the weather; and as they are of no other use that I know of, so it is not necessary that I should place them in 

the figure. 

" B is the mouth of the pistillum, or passage which leads into the germen C, in which are three ovaries filled with little eggs or rudi- 
ments of seeds, such as we find in the ovaria of animals ; but these eggs will decay and come to nothing, unless they are impregnated by the 
farina fctcundans or male seed of the same plant, or one of the same sort. 

" From D to E is a stamen of the lily, through which the male seed of the plant is conveyed to be perfected in the apex F, where, by 
the sun s heat, it ripens and bursts forth in very minute particles like dust ; some particles of which powder falling upon the orifice B, is 
either conveyed from thence into the germen C, or by its magnetic virtue, draws the nourishment, with great force, from the other parts of 
the plant into the embryos of the fruit, and makes them swell. 

" Now, that the farina fcecundans or male dust has a magnetic virtue, is evident ; for it is that only which bees gather and lodge in the 
cavities of their hind legs to make their wax with; and it is well known, that wax, when it is warm, will attract to it any light body. 
But again, if the particles of this powder should be required by Nature to pass into the ovaries of the plant, and even into the several 
eggs or seeds there contained, we may easily perceive, if we split the pistillum of a flower, that Nature has provided a sufficient passage for it 

into the uterus, or germen. 

" In the first figure I have only given a design of one stamen with its apex, to prevent mistakes in my explanation; but the flower of 
every lily has six of the same figure and use, which are placed round about the pistillum, or female organ; so that it is almost impossible it 
should escape from receiving some of the male dust (or farina facundans) falling upon it. 

« In this and other flowers of the like nature, the pistillum is always so placed, that the apices (anthers) which surround it, are either 
equal in height with it, or above it ; so that their dust falls naturally upon it. And when we observe it to be longer than the apices, we may 
then conjecture that the fruit has begun to form itself, and has no longer occasion for the male dust. And it is likewise observable, that as 
soon as this work of production is performed, the male organs, together with the leaves or covering, fall off, and the pipe leading to the ger- 
men begins to shrink. 

« We may farther remark, that the top of the pistillum in every flower, is either covered with a sort of velvet tunick, or emits a gummy 

liquor, the better to catch the dust of the apices (anthers). 

" And now, as we may find in the description I have given of the lily, that the germen is within the flower ; so, on the other hand, the 
germen of a rose is without the flower, at the bottom of the petals or flower-leaves. And likewise in fruit trees, the cherries, plums, and 
some others, have their utricles within their flowers ; and the gooseberry, currant, apples and pears, on the outside or bottom of their flowers. 
But farther; although Nature has designed the dust of the apices to fecundate the pistillum contained in the flowers of plants, yet we ob- 
serve that in some plants, the male and female organs are remote from each other. As, for example, the Gourd, Pompion, Melon, Cucumber, 
and all of that race, have blossoms distinctly, male and female, upon the same plant. The male blossoms may be distinguished from the 
others, in that they have not any pistil rudiment of fruit about them, but have only a large thrum covered with dust in their middle : the 
female blossom of these has a pistillum within the petals or flower-leaves, and the rudiment of their fruit always apparent at the bottom of the 
flower before it opens : and so in like manner all nut-bearing, and, I think, mast-bearing trees, have their catkins or male blossoms remote 

from the female flowers. 

« The oak, for example, which blossoms in May, has its male flowers distinct from the acorns; we find strings of little farinaceous flowers 
in great abundance, as in the second figure marked G, remote from the rudiments of the acorns or fruit, marked H. And so likewise in the 
Walnut, Chesnut, Hazel, Pine, Cypress, and even the Mulberry, Aspen, and others. I have observed that some sorts of Willows change 
their Sex every year, by producing only male blossoms or catkins one year, and the other following, strings of female blossoms, which, if 
they then happened to be near enough some flowering male, will produce seeds. 

" When we view, with a good microscope, the male dust of any single plant, we find every particle of it to be of the same size and 

figure ; but in some cases it is of three colours, as in the tulip, where it is yellow, green, and black ; but as plants differ from one another in 

their figures and qualities, so are the figures of their several dusts greatly different from each other : a grain of the dust of Geranium San- 

sruineum, maximo flore, of C. B. P. is like a bead of a necklace with a hole through it. 

J "The 


Df opened. 

Tulip Roots covered with one Skin. 

1. The uttered Stem on the outside of theJidb, 
because the bulb of the last year in the center 
of which it grew is decayed atvay . 

Horizontal Sections of -die Jhdbs^dL, and 3; 
Shewing the young Tulips in their Center. 

^4n. noruontal Section of an 27y,icinth BiJb : 
Shewing also the young Flower. 

Sendervon del. 





If 7 " J)nnkarWn J;;n r sndr. 

J,orn/.'/!. Published fy J> r ' Jnorntc 

riuph i;//iJ t>/ rfu> center. 

T)u Awiflt ' » red purple 

Much xwiepotat with dark purple Stirpes 

< / Xc\v Ti//ip. nay, ii hy. \ftison . 

4 . Tjrjojxjpme /lorxzE. 

itt/7Mft,vi Stnpes . 

b.Zouis XVI. 

E<U?ed with blade . 

yr Tirzii*. 

The Tetal i,pt.r<i/ate . <rr\me ,i>l,iir . 

$> . pVTCHESS of J 

n-/f/i dst&Of oflii/At purple 
New Tulip, raise,/ f>y Datry . 

PTtanofk fih/-*. 

Pul-'/snoi hT> r T/wrtt^i.Mm i ij.hl 

" The farina of the Corona Solis percnnis, Flore et Semine maximis, Hort. Ludg. Bat. is a globe set with thorns; that of the Ricinus 
Vulgaris, C. B. P. is of the figure of a grain of Wheat. 

" And the Acer Montaniwi Candidum of C. B. P. affords a dust of the figure of a cross : and in like manner does the farina of every 
plant differ in its shape from the rest. 

" The female organs of generation in plants are best seen in large fruits, without the trouble of the microscope ; such as the fruit of the 
Pompion or Melon, where, with the natural eye, we may discover the vessels distinctly, which make the tunic or covering of each ovary : 
we may see how the seeds are joined to it, and by what end they receive their nourishment. And again, between the several ovaries 
enclosed in that fruit, we may very easily perceive the hollow, or passage, through which the farina feccundans has passed to impregnate 

the seeds. 

" It may perhaps be objected against this hypothesis, that there are many flowers which hang downwards, as the Crown Imperial, the 
Cyclamen, &c. and that their pistils cannot receive the farina fivcundans upon them : but if we observe that the pistils of these flowers are 
always more prominent, or somewhat longer than the dusty apices which surround them, we may easily conceive that the glutinous matter 
and velvet covering on the extremities of the pistils, may be capable enough of receiving and holding some of the powder as it falls ; and 
whether the intromission of the farina fecundans be requisite or not, its lodgment on the mouth of the pistillum may, by virtue of its at- 
tractive quality, perhaps fecundate the seeds contained in the germen : I am sure, in the production of animals, there are yet greater difficul- 
ties to encounter with ; and it may be, if the analogy between plants and animals was more enquired after by the learned, they might dis- 
cover many new things which would be serviceable to the preservation and benefit of animal bodies, as this knowledge will be to the im- 
provement of the vegetable world. 

" I shall now proceed to what I call the demonstrative part of this system. I made my first experiment upon the tulip, which I chose 
rather than any other plant, because it seldom misses to produce seed. Several years ago I had the conveniency of a large garden, wherein 
there was a considerable bed of tulips in one part, containing about four hundred roots: in another part of it, very remote from the former, 
were twelve tulips in perfect health. At the first opening of the twelve, which I was very careful to observe, I cautiously took out of them 
all their apices (anthers), before the farina fcecundans was ripe, or any ways appeared: these tulips being thus castrated, bore no seed that 
summer; while, on the other hand, every one of the four hundred plants, which I had let alone produced seed." 

Blair, in his " Botanical Essays/' in that " On the Generation of Plants," has collected the opinions of all former writers, and added his 
own, in refutation of the embryo being constituted in the particles of farina. He has added no experiments of his own on the Sexes of 


Next follows our illustrious Miller, in the Gardener's Dictionary, published in 1730, under the word " Generation." After detailing 
the different sentiments and opinions advanced on this subject, he ends by relating his own experiments. 

" I shall conclude with mentioning a few experiments of my own, which I communicated to Dr. Patrick Blair, which he improved as a 
proof of his opinion of effluvia ; and Mr. Bradley also, as a proof of the farina entering the germen in substance, and leave the curious enquirer 
to determine on that side of the question, which reason and experiment shall influence him. 

" I separated the male plants of a bed of spinage from the female, and the consequence was, that the seed did swell to the usual bigness; 
but when sowed, it did not grow afterwards: and searching into the seed, I found it wanted the Punctum Vita. 

" I set twelve tulips by themselves, about six or seven yards from any other; and as soon as they blew, I took out the stamina so very 
carefully, that I scattered none of the male dust; and about two days afterwards I saw bees working on a bed of tulips, where I did not take 
out the stamina; and when they came out, they were loaded with dust on their bodies and legs, and I saw them fly to the tulips, where I 
had taken out the stamina ; and when they came out, I found they had left behind them sufficient to impregnate these flowers, for they bore 
good ripe seeds. But by a piece of gauze put over the flowers the experiment is found to answer. 

« In a letter communicated by Paul Dudley, Esq. to the Royal Society, wrote from New England, he mentions the interchanging of the 
colours of the Indian wheat, if the various colours are planted in rows near each other; but if they are planted separately, they constantly 
keep to their own colour: and this interchanging of colours has been observed, when the distance between the rows of corn has been several 
yards; though he says, if there happens to be a high board fence between the different coloured corns, the alteration of colours is entirely 

^Cucumb'rs do always produce male and female flowers upon different parts of the same plant : the male flower (which appears upon a 
slender footstalk, and has a slender column in the middle, covered with an orange-coloured farina) is by the gardeners commonly called 
false blossoms, and are sometimes by unskilful persons pulled off soon after they appear, supposing that they weaken the plants if suffered to 
remain which is a very great mistake : for in order to try this experiment, I planted four rowss ot cucumber plants in a place pretty far distant 
from any other ; and when the flowers began to appear, I constantly pulled off all the male flowers from time to time before they opened : 
the consequence was, that all the young fruit dropt off soon after they appeared, and not one single fruit remained to grow to any S1 ze, 
though the vines were equally strong with those which I had planted in another place, where I suffered all the flowers to remain upon them, 
from which I had a great quantity of fruit. ._ . . 

« From these, and many other experiments, it is very plain, that there is a neceflity that the embryo of the female flower should be im- 
pregnated by the farina or male dust, in order to render the fruit perfect ; but how, or in what manner it is performed is what we can only 
guets at, since in the generation of animals, our greatest naturalists differ very much in their opinions, nor can any of them ascertain any 

particular method how it is performed. . • 

« Some persons have objected to the theory of the generation, as here laid down, because they have observed some female plants produce 

fruit, without having been impregnated by the male. t 

« It is certain, that the female plants may produce fruit without the impregnation of the male; but it is not certain, that this fruit or 
seed will, if sown, produce another plant. What has been so often related by travellers and historians, of the necessity of the male palm- 
tree being near the female, in order to render it fruitful, hath been, it is supposed, fully refuted by Father Labat, in his account .of Africa, 
where he has treated of the several sorts of palms: he says, that he observed, in Martinico, a large palm-tree, which grew by the side of a 
convent, which produced fruit in plenty, though there was no other palm-tree growing within two leagues of this ; but he also observed, that 
none of these fruit would grow, though they had made many trials of them ; so that they were obliged to procure some fruit from Barbary, 
in order to propagate these trees. He likewise adds, that the fruit which grew on this female tree, never ripened so perfectly, nor was so 
well tasted, as those which came from trees which had stood near some of the male. Therefore we may conclude, that the fruit or seed may 
be produced by the female plants of most kinds, without the assistance of the male sperm, which may appear to sight perfect and fit to 
produce other plants; but if we examine the seeds, we shall find that most of them have not the germ, or little plant inclosed, nor will 
grow, if they are sown. „ From 

But none better than VAILLANT, t the great French botanist, who, in his academic 

" From a repeated number of experiments, in separating the male from the female plants, I have always observed, that where it has been 
done in time, and with proper care, so as that there could have been none of the farina fctcundans of the male plant scattered on the female; 
that though the female plants have produced sometimes fair seeds to appearance, yet, when they have been carefully sown, there has not 
been one plant produced from them. 

J The honour of the discovery of the Sexes in Plants is always torn from our countrymen, and given by the French to Vail- 
lant. In that famous Poem, * published in Vaillant's " Botanicon Parisiense," « De Connubiis Florum" the poet gives this honour to 

<' Callibus insistat veterum pede turba sequaci, 
Vulgaresque animae, servum genus j at sibi stravit 
Intactum Valiantlts iter. Qua callidus arte 
Dirigat in flores etiam sua tela Cupido 
Vidit, et herbarum detexit primus amores. 

Macencroe, M.D." 

There are also other pieces of poetry which preface this work to the same effect : 

"Omnibus in terris quassitum ad Florea regna, 
Et nemo in terris inveniebat iter; 
At nunc si patuit, si flos hie masculus, ille, 
Farnineus, vel mas fcemineusque simul; 
Arma viri melius si stamina credimus esse 

Pistillum melius conjugis esse tubam, 
Nee latet, inque tubas inque ova ut fulguris instar 

Mane ferax rigidi staminis aura ruat ; 
Audiat Elysiis haec Tournefortus in arvis. 
Invention decus est hoc Valiante tuum. 

Demetrius de la Croix, M. D." 


** L'ingenieux Vaillant grand partizan de Flore, 
Epia la Nature, et la prit sur le fait ; 
Par un souffle subtil it vit les fleurs e'clore, 
Et de leur tendre amour le mystere secret. 

Louis Badon de la Riviere." 

And, in order to fix this honour more permanently on Vaillant, under his portrait is engraved, 

" Hie primus ante alios Florum Connubia vidit." 

We do not mean to deny the knowledge Vaillant had of this subject, for he has presented us, in his discourse " De Structura Florum, 
horum Differentia, Usuque Partium," " On the structure of Flowers, their Variety, and the Uses of the component Parts," published in 1718, 
with a very florid description of the Marriage of Plants, and his particular observations on the Parietaria {Pellitory of the IVall), of which! 
for the sake of the curious and inquisitive reader, we shall make a short extract. 

" Quoties autem accideret, ut in eadem stirpe flores gerantur simul, quorum hi foeminina tantum, illi autem masculina et foeminina con- 
juncta, organa cingunt, arrectio, tumorque organorum masculinorum in hisce tarn subitb contingit, ut lobuli gemma; flosculosae cedant illorum 
impetui, atque hinc inde semet expandant mirabili mehercule velocitate. Etenim eodem hocce momento libidinosa hsec ingenia nihil ardentius 
cogitant, nisi ut violentos luxuriei affectus expleant, neque citius libera se et expedita experiuntur, quin extemplb quam vehementissime foe- 
cundam explodant, omnemque uno impetu ejaculentur, genituram, diffusa nimirum pulverulenta nubecula spargente quaquaversum foecunda- 
tionem arvi genitalis. Verum, quam rara, quam mira, catastrophe ! ipso hoc fcecundandi ardore adeb semet exhausta dolent, ut ipso, quo 
prolem vitam donant, momento sibimet mortem parant preesentissimam ! 

" Neque vel hie tamen Scena clauditur. Quid ergo ? Vix venereus hie lusus absolutus est, quin ilico florum labia, aut lobuli, ad se invi- 
cem accedant eodem quidem, quo a se mutuo recesserant, celeritatis impetu, veteremque ita formam statim renovent. Ita quidem, ut difficil- 
limum foret credere, flores hosce ullam vim passos esse, nisi vel ipse actum hunc vidisset oculus, vel adhuc cerneret caduca sceleta magnani- 
morum heroum, qui hanc pugnaverant pugnam ; clara quippe haec gestae fortiter rei monumenta supersunt aliquamdiu erecta in campo conflic- 
tus, aut Aplustrium instar Jacularios experiuntur lusus volitantis Zephyri. 

Apparatum huncce artificiosum facile spectare datur in Parietaria. Sed accedas oportet hora sacra Veneri ! Aurora est, quae favet et 
adspirat diversorum in plantis sexuum voluptatibus, congressib usque; ubi vero agere forte renuunt satis opportune ex voto Tui observantis, 
cogere vel sic poteris, aciculae apice leniter modb stimules. Si enim matura jam hisce aetas lusibus, opus tantum erit quam blandissime unum 
elevare lobulorum, statimque spectaculo quam jucundissimo oblectaberis ; filamenta quippe, vel manubria staminum ex arcuato hactenus incur- 
voque flexu in erectum arriguntur situm, ut vi acta violenta; tumque liquido spectatur singulare quodque et tectum, quod in exercitio hocce 
peragitur venereo. Vaillant Sermo de Florum Structura, p. 9." A property not less extraordinary has been discovered in other plants. 

The learned Founder and President of the Linnaean Society, London, Dr. Smith, read a paper " On the Irritability in the Stamina of 
the Barberry, &?c. M before the Royal Society, Feb. 14, 1788. 

" The stamina of such of the flowers of the Barberry (Barberis Communis) as were open were bent backwards to each petal, and 
sheltered themselves under their concave tips. No shaking of the branch appeared to have any effect upon them. With a very small bit of 

a This ver ? interestin g Poem, containing 525 lines, was written by Dr. Grant, an Irish student at Paris, under a masked name. It has been since published alone by 
White, edited by Sir Richard Clayton, Bart. J 


ihsastdjln yaxi 

f //- 


f //f//n / />•/ 


y/ JCtUfl 

./„„ 'A',//,:./,,/ fy ( . * :: //,..„.,.■ 

I, ,,',„/.; Ltd, 

J» " * j F 

oration published by Boerhaave, shewed that he knew this thing accurately, although he has 
not demonstrated it by actual experiments. 

From that period, that is from the year 1718, many have attempted to raise up this rock, 
especially the author of the Sexual System, who had supposed that the thing itself was clear, 
and already established from his various labours, although Ponteder a* has indeed attempted to 
refute it. 

stick I gently touched the inside of one of the filaments, which instantly sprung from the petal with considerable force, striking its anthera 
against the stigma. I repeated the experiment a great number of times ; in each flower touching one filament atter another, t.U the anthers 01 
all six were brought together in the center over the stigma. . 

" I took home with me three branches laden with flowers, and placed them in ajar of water, and in the evening tried the experiment on 
some of these flowers, then standing in my room, with the same success. 

" In order to discover in what particular part of the filaments this irritability resided, I cut oft" one of the petals with a very fine pair ot 
scissars, so carefully as not to touch the stamen which stood next it : then, with an extremely slender piece of quill I touched the outside ot 
the filament which had been next the petal, stroking it from top to bottom ; but it remained perfectly immoveable. With the same instru- 
ment I then touched the back of the anthera, then its top, its edges, and at last its inside; still without any effect. But the quill being 
carried from the anthera down the inside of the filament, it no sooner touched that part than the stamen sprung forwards with great v-gour 
to the stigma. This was often repeated with a blunt needle, a fine bristle, a feather, and several other things, which could not possibly in- 
jure the structure of the part, and always with the same effect. 

« To some of the anther* I applied a pair of scissars, so as to bend their respective filaments with sufficient force to make them touch the 
stigma- but this did not produce the proper contraction of the filament. The incurvation remained only so long as the instrument was ap- 
plied: on its being removed, the stamen returned to the petal by its natural elasticity. But on the scissars being applied to the irritable part, 
the anthera immediately flew to the stigma, and remained there. A very sudden and smart shock given to any part of a stamen would, 
however, sometimes have the same effect as touching the irritable part. 

" Hence it is evident, that the motion above described was owing to an high degree of irritability in the side of each filament, next the ger- 
men, by which, when touched, it contracts, that side becomes shorter than the other, and consequently the filament is bent towards the 
eermen. I could not discover any thing particular in the structure of that or any other part of the filament. 

« This irritabilitv is perceptible in stamina of all ages, and not merely in those which are just about d.schargmg their pollen In some 
flowers, which were only so far expanded that they would barely admit a bristle, and whose anther* were not near bursting, the . filamen s 
appeared almost as irritable as in flowers fully opened; and in several old flowers, some of whose petals * llh .^..'^Tff^yl 
them were falling off, the remaining filaments, and even those which were already fallen to the ground, proved full as irritable as any I 

tod ™Zl m e flowers I carefully removed the gcrme,., without touching the filaments, and then applied a bristle to one of them, which 
immediately contracted, and the stigma being out of its way, it was bent quite over to the opposite side ot the flower. 

« Observing the stamina in some flowers which had been irritated returning to their original situations in the hollows of the petals, found 

the same thing happened to all of them sooner or later. I then touched some filaments which had perfectly resumed their former stations, 

ndZ d the S m contract with as much facility as before. This was repeated three or four times on the same filament. I *^»*"g 

late, in the midst of their progress, some which were returning, but not always with success; a few ot them only were shghtly affected by 

thE -The' purpose which this curious contrivance of Nature answers in the private economy of the plant seems not hard to ^ dj-overed 
When the stamina stand in their original position, their anther* are effectually sheltered from ram by the concavity of ltap*M» 
probably hey remain till some coming to extract honey from the base of the flower thrusts ''-It between theirj lam t 
and almost unavoidably touches them in the most irritable part: and thus the impregnat.on of the germen is performed . and a .U ^is 
chlfly in fine sunny weather that insects are on the wing, the pollen is also in such weather most fit for the purpose of unpregna- 

ti0 "« The Barberry is not the onlv plant which exhibits this phenomenon. The stamina of Cactus Tuna a kind of Indian Pig, _arc ^like- 
wise vlry i^tahle^ These stamina I long and slender, standing in great numbers round the inside of the flower If a qufl. o ea her h 
drawn through them, they begin in the space of two or three seconds to lie down gently on one, and in a short time they are 
bent at the bottom of the flower." 

* Pontidera was professor of Botany at Pisa, and published, in , 7 7». his •< Anthologia, sive De Boris ^' ^TZlZ^of 
Nature of Flowers." In his preface he expresses that his chief design in this publication was to repress the prevaAng beUrf rtjte Sexes o 
Plants « Quin etiam cum multos videam pneclare indolis juvenes turn veterum, turn recentiorum trad.t lon.bus ita alhc, per 
Sen impel et infirmiora ingenia in iis ipsis rei Botanic* principiis decipi possint, succurrendum esse, et tot.s vinbu S P— -^ 
malum diducatur, judicavi. Quod sane et illis, quas in horto anno superiore habui, dissertat.ombus ex parte pr*sfti, audito es "»"»»»» 
Tonendo u Villi, opinionibus, qu* ingenii specie b.andiuntur, caverent. Perfaci.e siquidem juvenilis ^-'^Z^ius Le" d 
alliciunt/capitur, quibus semel imbuta per omne vit* tempus s*pe„umero eas servat. Et revera non video ^^^^T^ 
beamus, quam cum homines auctoritate eximia, ut animos rerum imperitos ad se convertant, et all.c.ant ,ta loquuntur . <"*£*^ n ™ 
Lfoeminas, in androgynas distribute ; partesque illas, quas in deliciis habemus, floresque vocamus, nihil ahud esse ' "3"^^' ^f"" 
dafin plantis, ut Plmli verbis utar, Veneris intellect, maresaue afflatu auoiam. et pulvere ^"^^^^^J^Z, 
h*c se ab aliis non accepisse, sed vidisse profitentur, qui conjugii tempora tradunt, qui rat.onem, qp* frigid* in Venerem stirpes so .at 
Jocen , et amsi iis non omnino assentiatur, tamen non legendos ediscendosque judicabit i Quo exemp.o a... incitati sese n^cknU Q» 
eveS "I vel hujusmodi opinionibus sese obnoxios tradant, illisque perpetuo adh*reant, de quibus jam actum esse ™P» ^"^ >> ™ 
ut vana's et commenticias rejiciant, atque una totam rem Botanica in contemptu habeant. His itaque de causis maturandum esse cognov,. 
Quapropter libellum anno proxime elapso de hujusmodi rebus consenptum. 


of the StvTe / he ives u 1 f . eXCS " " *%?£? "^ *° "J* n ° ticing - In Chapter XXVL " De Tub * Usu '" " ° n the 0ffice 

delatus con en os fZs n £22 2 TT V F" PriECipUUm mUnUS ^"^ "^ VidetUF ' "' ^ ^ ™ '" frUCtUS Cavitatem 

necessarius est utTn4 "™ * C ° mP T SeminiS ^ Subire Valeant - H ° C aUtem CX e ° P atet ' P rimum 1 u ° d a " Per- 

tubas potest admitd ' P * U * COm P ress,onera sem '"' s »^»t«. humores ingrediantur, deinde quod nihil aliud, nisi aer, in fructus cavitatem per 

•tatim gum mi do" s „/2 r lTd Um C ^7 U,a J« ta < l UOrUndam PWlosophantium sententiam per tubas in uterum deferri conjiciamus, 
corpuscula sed vl I ' VlarUm angUStk ab haC °P inione reVOCant ; si vero ad illos *ecedimus, qui non apicum 

me r bv^;i vol tr C o su :z; n ap conte r m excipi a tubarum fistuiis tradunt * statim cur tanta machinati ° ne * «?^ n 

per tubarum fistuhsVn fructus ca" f' Th '" E ^ ^ "°" re P eriuntur ' -mper -perir!, et apicum succum ad semina fecundanda 
nere taSSS^^E^STlS 55** ? P ' Um ^^ *" darem atqUC COnCederem ' adhuc tamen * canaliculi mu- 
valeret Nam Ti knt i'etS f 5" <f T Sente " t,a ' ^ k^" part6S SCCerni > et extra fructum amandari per tubas opinatus est, 

naturlliter Ite oondereH T' f ' *f^ * te " UiSSimi """"^ qUid 1 Uid de ° rSUm illabitUr ' sisti "S 1 "* * uam ™ eorpora omia 

•S^lSCSi^iJ^ -".^f-ilius siquidsursumascenderet, prohibitura nemo negabit! Accedit etiam, ut nullum 
egredi potest H ncTanue »te 'cu e TTk ^^"^ tam facile sursura fe rri «'«*• Nihil igitur, nisi aer, per tubas aut ingredi aut 

fil cuius ope sem nislT P , " V™ "^""^ COntabescat fructus = •>»"»» enim amplius partibus contractis, aeris fngressus 

pr 5Z ™ ver , eXP ; Ca " P ° SSlnt - EVCnit C,iam -P e ~ ut '"barum extremitas ve. ma.igno rore, vel nocturno frigofe, aut 

Lidu t'ef pTmal v Xm "fTSl ^ ^^ * "^ *** ""' f ° ramen - T "" C ^ tenelli -^ -erbi 
tubos fabrefedt naZ ol rimT, ,?" * ' ^ **"? ^^ Q "^^' ne h ° c tam erebro contingeret, crassiores in extremitate 

" Th Tl « pJnnmis utncuhs res.nato succo refertis, quo frigoris vis retunderetur, circumiweiti.." 

S^^Sf^sf^«^ W ^;L totte ^ andCaUSC af ™ tati — that ^e , t%HW is n..ed with resinous juices to 

decay by frosT !l ^ ' " nt f"f T^ ^T^ "" P ° reS_that ^ rem ° Val ° f '^ ^ CaUSCS the ab ° rti °" ° f the seeds > ° r its 

^ oy rrost, only from want of the proper spiracula, for the admission of air." 

fluid, whicMstep e are7rn2 he T" *? T 1 1 ^ '° ^ * «"**" "^ ( ° the piStUlum ' a " d aU ° that the ^ form a ™*W« 
«T P P P the a " therS ' and whlch Ascends down the filaments, and so enters the germen." 

vel a vaZ" a „tarcilr inib, ! S 'K apiCibUS< l Ue ^^ fU,dvit ' atqUC circums epsit, ut in Malva, Altte,, in Papilionaceis floribus, in quibus 
He mI t T eXC ' piU T tub »' ut ln flos eulosis proprie dicto et lingulato, vel a petalo ut in semiflosculosis." Chap. XXV. 

ways? Wh^ Si ^ recoursTt t T, ?S w Pr ° dUCti ° nS t0 the cha " Ce ° f ,he wi " ds ' " Wb ^" -B- * " *ou.d we fabricate new 
expknat ion offe ,, I h , "" ^ * ? WHy % t0 the atmos P he ^ » Why implore the assisting aid of winds ? when a more natural 

it is not at all n nh * T u sure '- journey, by which the nutriment is conveyed to the fruit without the sportings of the winds ? Indeed, 

™ I ' ^ thC ° ther partS ° f the fl ° Wer are fabricated with so much skil1 and ea«ti°n, that in her chief and principal con- 

cern, sue should prove so extremely dull and thoughtless." 

mitte'ren°n n r id q e uod alo'nnT " 7,™' nam ™ tmX ex P ediret > si a P ic «'« eorpuscula vel saltern apicum liquor per tubam ad embryonem trans- 

sitio nl me !l ,' * Pr ° d,tUm SU ° '° C ° ex P licandum reservamus, «*> multa occurrunt, turn polissimum staminum dispo- 

quod apicum corousc^r 8 "7 ° Pini ° ne meam COn J un g am > e tiam invitum abducunt. Non enim ration! consentaneum esse videtur, 

staminaTta di ST iL7 '° aCr ;' "* VenUS ad J UVantibus > ad P istillut " "eferantur, et per pistillum ad embryonem, cum in omnibus floribus 

OSZI Ml Z „lv ' T Tl' Ut nU "° " eg0ti ° aP ' 1CUm SUCCUS ad embryonem per stamen, cui apices adherent, transmitti possit. 

per ouam litres nnl. ^ ^ "' " d ^ COnfu S imusf Cur -ntorum manns imploramus, si naturalis, si brevissima via reperitur, 

5uan™mSuT„lr-T" t a ^r , - t0nin,q,,e 1UdibriUm ^ frUCtUm afficiendum d eferantur> Numquid dubitamus, quin potius ipsi pistillo, 

TScZT^l > '" * adhaS ' SSerit a P ices > si Pe^ ****** i»orum succus cra b ry o, lcm fuUsct S ubiturus ? Non enim verfsimi.e est, 

camera in ttore et ,n plantis summa industria, consilioque summo constituisset, in re pnecipua, et tam necessaria, adeo hebetem, inertem- 

q uisse naturam. Mihi contra quam maxime solors et industria videtur, cum hoc, quem videbimus, ordine stamina ita disposuerit, ut inde 

ppareat, hoc opus nequaquam neglexisse. Nam in iis, quos in exemplum assumemus, floribus subest divinum ingenium, et vera natur.8 vis 

Uuod quidem aperte demonstrat, hoc spectasse, et id egisse, non illud a veri similitudine alienum, quod multis laudibus nobis extulerunt' 

rnncipio itaque stamina vel embryonis receptaculo, vel ramulo, cui embryo adhaeret, affixit, quo facilius apicum liquor ab utriculis egressus 

per 1 1 amen, purus, non aeris, non pluvi :e , non roris inclementia male affectus ad embryonem evolvendum transiret. Deinde stamina mirabili 

consiho hrmavit, munivitque, ne deorsum aut sinistrorsum inclinata canaliculos contraherent, liquoremque descendentem prohiberent, aut in 

via cogerent sisti. In omnibus igitur floribus monopetalis, quoniam hi in partes nequaquam secti firmiter receptaculo affiguntur, interiori 

llorum paneti adherent stamina per intervallum digesta, et una cum petalis receptaculo insident. 

The argument drawn from the mutilation of the stamen, as well as the pistillum he has thus evaded. 
He enters next upon more slippery ground, where the sexes of flowers are placed apart. 
First of the Fructification of the Palms. He observes, 
K " That these produce fruit in deserts, where no art is employed." 

" Etsi satis superque id quod nunc proponimus, expositum atque explanatum sit, tamen, quoniam sjepe eo contingere videmus, quae nulla 

ratione attingenda sunt, breviter adhuc inquirendum judico, num in aliqua regione Palma ita nascantur, ut nisi a sterilibus Palmis ipsarum 

embryones afficerentur, nunquam hi maturitatem haberent. Quare de Palmis in iEgypto et circumpositis provinciis nascentibus, et de por- 

entosa ilia Palnumun cultura est disserendum. Sed ante omnia illud explanare aggrediar, ut ostendam, Palmas dactyliferas extra jEgvp- 

tum sine illo cultu (quo scilicet sterilium Palmarum flores, hianti foeminee spaths inseruntur), nisi id regionis terraque conditione prohibeatur, 

palmulas ad maturitatem perducere. Nam quod in Greecia fructum ad maturitatem non perducant Palma, id hac de causa contingere judico, 

videlicet : vel quod Gwcia non ita calidiori plagae subjecta sit, ut Palmarum natura requirit, vel quod in solo minus apto plantentur, vel deni- 

que quod cultus al.enus adhibeatur. Etenim etiam cultum plurimum ad Palmarum fertilitatem conferre, auctorum monumenta testantur; et 

nepe quie stenles hab.tae sunt, et propterea neglects jacebant, cum cultus accessisset, repente ftecunda; evaserunt, fructus quam uberrimos 

rerentes. Unde falma ilia in agro Hydruntino, postquam, recisis, quibus undequaque adumbrabatur, arboribus, aeris et Solis vim propius 

excepit vegetior redd.ta fructus edere coepit, cum antea neglecta sterilis permansisset. Hoc autem magis verisimile videtur, quam quod pro- 

toritaa Sn^rndd • Bmndusii sitffi auram maritalem ex alto hausisset. Hanc historiam Pontanus ex vulgari opinione poetice illus- 

Brundusii latis longe viret ardua terris 

Arbor Idumaeis usque petita locis. 
Altera Hydruntinis in saltibus aemula Palmae, 

Ilia virum referens, haec muliebre decus. 
Non uno crevere solo, distantibus agris, 

Nulla loci facies, nee socialis amor, 


Permansit sine prole diu, sine fructibus arbor 

Utraque, frondosis et sine fruge comis. 
Ast postquam patulos fuderunt brachia ramos, 

Coepere et coelo liberiore frui, 
Frondosique apices se conspexere, virique 

Ilia sui vultus, conjugis ille suae 
Hausere et blandum venis sitientibus ignem, 

Optatos foetus sponte tulere sua: 
Ornarunt ramos gemmis, mirabile dictu, 

Implevere suos melle liquente favos. 

Verum ad hanc sententiam loqui solis Poetis conceditur. Caeterum mirifice libero et patulo non opaco solo coli gaudet Palma. Argu- 
mentum ex Suetonio Tranquillo in Augusti Imperatoris vita habemus de Palma in Mundae saltibus reperta, quae, recisis adumbrantibus arbo- 
ribus, cum ipsa jam annosa fibras nimium contractas diducere non posset et crescere, tamen ut vegetior facta stolonem protruxit, qui citissime 
adolescens matrem superavit. * Apud Mundam,' inquit, 'Divus Julius castris locum capiens, cum sylvam cederet, arborem Palmae repertam 
conservari, ut omen victoriae jussit. Ex ea continuo nata soboles adeo in paucis diebus adolevit, ut non aequipararet modo matricem, verum 
etiam obtegeret, frequentareturque Columbarum nidis : quamvis id avium genus duram ct asperam frondem maxime vitet.' Evenit igitur, ut 
Palmae etiam ob cultus negligentiam steriles saepenumero habitae sint. 

Quare nos hoc in loco de Palmis quas peculiares regiones sponte fcrunt, tantum dicere aggredimur. Ecquis itaque hujusmodi in desertis 
et vestae solitudinis Arabia? regionibus cultum ilium qualis in iEgypto et circumpositis provinciis, Palmis adhibitum unquam meminerit? 
• Haud credendam' (verba sunt Guilandini apud Prosperum Alpinum) * istam Palmarum conceptionem, qua? lit arte a te narrata, arguere videntur 
innumeri dactyli, qui in Arabiae desertis feruntur; in quibus sylvestrium Palmarum sylvae reperiuntur, qua? sine hominum cultu optimos 
fructus ac copiosos producunt, retinent, ac maturant.* Hkc autem ita valida est ratio, ut impar ad refellendum Alpinus ad ventorum provi- 
dentiam se se converterit. ■ Arabes,' ait, 'Palmarum cultus periti respondebunt, Palmarum foecunditatem id Arabia? desertis, licet arte non fiat 
(quando in his locis hae arbores, ut dictum est, sine ulla cultura fructus producant) adjuvare ventos, marium e ramis pulveres floresque ad 
ramos fceminarum asportantes.' Nam cur in ^Egypto hoc sini cultu non lit? Numquid vcnti in cultis regionibus ita dociles non sunt, 
ut in desertis ?" 

II. M That the reason why art is usually employed, is to carry flies to the female flowers to pierce the spathas for the admission of air, 
or to convey the nutriment secreted in the anthers to the pistillum. 

" That caprification is used, rests wholly on the authority of the father of history, Herodotus, in contradiction to all modern 

" Nunc autem summam Dei Opt. Max. providentiam mirari subit, qui divino profecto beneficio illis populis ut cssct, quo vitam susten- 
tarent, succurrendum judicavit. Nam cum succus qui in peculiaria vascula colligitur vel ob partes quibus componitur, vel quod nimis crassus 
quam par est, ita affectus ad palmulas fortasse deferatur, ut palmula? quidem explicentur, et crescant, sed ad maturitatem nulla ratione perduci 
possint, immature ac inutiles ad terram delabuntur. Hinc itaque peculiare Culicum genus creatum fuisse opinor qui sterilium Palmarum 
floribus innascerentur : hi ad fructiferarum embryones delati eos terebrant, inutili succo viam aperiunt, aerem et solem quibus lenti crassiqUe 
utriculorum succi subigantur, inferunt, partesque Medico veluti quodam morsu ita afficiunt, ut poma omnia retincantur, et perfectionem ha- 
beant. Quare Palmarum cultores, ut propius culices nascantur, inter foecundas et fructiferas Palmas steriles et florifcras ordinare solent, siquae 
longius sitae sunt, funibus appensis, per # quos Culices repere possint, conjungere, turn sterilium spadices abscissos per fructiferarum spathas 
distribuere, florumque pulverem atque una Culices super hiantes spathas discutere. Hanc Palmarum per Culices culturam vetustissimus Auctor 
Herodotus, dum per illas regiones iter faceret, diligentissime omnia rimando princeps deprehendit, litterisque ad hunc modum mandavit in 
KXefa, ita liber inscribilur : jiVj it rpt ff/vOMf 7rt<pVK0TBf dvat tra.v to 7reo*iov, ol irXtvuts avruv, Kotpnotpopoi, ik ruv xj triTtat Kott et vcv Kj f*t\t irotouvTur tk; 
cwttuv Tp07rov Qtpotirevvrf ru re aXXa k) Qomxuv tb; tpe-tvetg tXhijveg xuXvtri, tvtov tov xotpnov mpiiiwi rijirt CaXan^opoun tuv Qomtcuv, ivot Vf*Of»fVllJ 
<r(p\ fav rrjv (3ot*ctvov l<riuvw, xati fW atrc^tvi o xapnot; o rv $©i'©-. f%m yap irj <pypu(ri t» tw xapiru M ipo~tve;> xMntp ft el oXvvSot. hoc est : ' In 
Babylonis agris Palmae magna ex parte fructiferae proveniunt, ex quibus non solum vinum, mel, eibum conficiuntcr, sed etiam eodem modo, 
quo Ficus, curantur. Harum uti aliarum arborum masculas Grieci vocant, quarum fructus Palmae fructifera* alligant, ut earum fructus ma- 
turet Culex subiens, ne ex arbore is defluat ; ferunt enim Palmarum mares Culices, quemadmodum Caprifici.' En itaque quo pacto sine apicum 
afFectione, sine ullo conjugio Palmis fructiferis, ne palmulas ante maturitatem amittant, per hos tyims succurritur. Quo profecto Herodoti 
testimonio confirmatum habemus, neque in ^Egypto, et in circumpositis provinciis Palmas fructiferas a sterilibus affici. Neque Bodaei a Stapel 
sententia laudabilis apparet, qui Herodoti fidem derogans magis Theophrasto utpote Botanico, quam Herodoto Historico credendum esse sta- 
tuit. ' Nemo,' inquit, < facile negabit, Theophrasto hac in re majorem deberi fidem, quam Herodoto. Historicus Herodotus; Botanicus Theo- 
phrastus : cuilibet vero in sua arte credendum.' Numquid Historico mentiri licet, Botanico nequaquam ? Mihi contra videtur fides quam am- 
plissima esse Herodoto habenda, turn quod naturali modo caprificationis exemplo, qua et ilia tempestate et hoc etiam tempore in tota Graecia 
nihil clarius percipitur, istam Palmarum culturam explicaverit, turn potissimum quod non ea quae ab aliis percotando acceperat, sed quae ipse 
viderat, scripta relinquerit. Thebphrastus vero ex aliorum relatione ea Palmarum conjugia litteris mandavit, ut et ipse fassus est: ^ w , in- 
quit, i C«CuX«ri' <p*<nv, ?*» d *»W« *i*tx«**. Quae ad hune modum redduntur: ' quippe apud Babylonem, ubi Palmae nascuntur, sic esse 
affirmant.' Caprificantur itaque Palmae in ^Egypto, in Syria, et alibi, quemadmodum in Graecia Ficus, ut Culices qui masculae Palmae floribus 
innascuntur, ad fructiferae poma delati ea terebrent, et ut ad maturitatem perducantur, praestant. Ideo etiam spathae circunquaque abscin- 
duntur, ut per vulnus succi pars egeratur, et sole ac aere molliusculi embryones facilius frui possint." 

III. * That some of the Palms produce fruit, where there are no stamina, in corresponding plants, as the Toddapannar 

" Sed quid argumenta quaero, quando res clara et manifesta in Palmis quartae differentiae habctur ? Toddapanna petalis apicibusque desti- 
tuta fructus producit cmotannis, neque tamen in eodem genere alia adest cognata et maritalis Palma, a quibus effluvia ad illam trans- 

mittantur." , . ■ . 

This rests upon the authority of a bad figure and description in the Hortus Malabancus, and several other plants in that work are repre- 
sented without stamina, and yet made to produce fruit, probably from the painter's taking his picture of the flower when the stamina had 
fallen off. Such are the futile objections raised against this doctrine! 

As some may feel curious to learn yet more the train of reasoning against the sexes of plants, I shall proceed on to his explanation of the 

other unisexual flowers. . 

« Quinque genera flore imperfecto instructa, quorum species aliae fructum, aliae apices ferunt, perpendenda aggrcdior, Morum nempe, 
Juniperum Ficum, Cannahim, et Lupulum, in quibus hoc praestare conabor, ut sine cognatarum stirpium apicibus embryonem perfectum 
fieri ostendam. Hoc si exitu perfecero, de reliquis cunctis, quas brevitatis gratia praetermitto, id ostendisse pro certo habebo. 



" Morus itaque perraro in eadem stirpe in qua fructus, ut constituit Tournefortius, amenta producit, (hoc enira in una tantum specie 
observavi) sed plerunque in peculiari planta, quae praeter apices nihil aliud gignit. Quae vero Morus fructum producit, eum tuba tantum do- 
natum habet. Cum porro fructifera Mori passim occurrant, steriles tamen stirpes infrequentes sunt, et plerunque quadraginta aut sexaginta 
stadiis distare eas inter se vidi. Nam, cum sterilis vermibus nutriendis minus aptas frondes producat, coloni qui sobolem propagari hac rationc 
ignorant, cum fertilis Mori stolones cum sua terra evulsos plantantes mergis utantur, ei non solum cultum aliquem non exhibent, sed vel 
extirpant vel in foecundas inserunt. Quare perraro occurrit, neque in cultis, sed ut casu a. fertilis Mori semine jacto nascitur, aut secus agro- 
rum lacunas cernitur, aut inter vepreta. Ex iis itaque tam paucis sterilibus Moris innumerabilia corporum seminalium effluvia emanare 
necesse est, quibus magnum hoc circunfusi aeris spatium ita repleatur, ut non solum Mori quae minori intervallo distant, sed etiam illae quae 
quam longissimo spatio seponuntur, eandem corpusculorum partem accipiant, et aequaliter foecundentur. Ad quod praestandum non solum 
apices, sed neque ipsae frondes, rami, truncus, et radix, si in apicum corpuscula abirent, sufficerent. Praeterea cum in his regionibus fertiles 
Mori plures sint, ut Morus alba J. B. l. 119, Morus fructu albo, minori, ex albo purpurascente Tournef. Inst. R. Herb. 58Q, Morus 
fructu nigro C. B. Pin. 450, sterilis, ut mihi hactenus compertum est, una tantum, qui fieri potest, ut apicum corpuscula, quae eadem ma- 
teria constant, paternumque (ut ita dicam) spiritum gerunt, dissimilibus speciebus nullam vim communicent, ex qua aliqua sequatur in Iructu 
dissimilitudo ? Semper enim eadem figura, colore, et magnitudine crescit ? Quod fane in omnibus animantibus contra fit. 

Sed de Moro jam satis: transeamus ad Juniperum, cujus genus inter eas quoque plantas est collocandum, quarum aliae amenta producunt, 
aliae fructum. Quae agiturjulos sive amenta gignit, ea primo vere fundit. Fertilis autem a vere fructum edere incipit, neque per aestatem 
cessat, sed novos semper fructus emittit. Nascitur autem promiscue in montibus utraque ; saepe tamen in hortos transferuntur, et seorsum 
magno adeo spatio cultas vidimus, ut saepe inter fertilem et sterilem triginta stadiorum spatium aut quadraginta intercederet. Cum igitur 
Juniperus fertilis tota aestate baccis onusta reperiatur, quarum aliae jam maturae sunt, aliae acerbae, nonnullae minores, multae minusculae, 
quae tamen omnes subinde crescunt, et maturitatem habent, necesse est, ut seminalia sterilis effluvia a ventis jugiter subministrentur, quibus 
afFecti embryones se se explicare possint.. At unde haec depromentur, cum sterilis primo vere floreat, et semel tantum, ejusque seminalis 
pulvisculus turn a ventis turn a pluviis dissipatus sit ? Nullam itaque in Juniperus fieri apicum communicationem apparet, sed Juniperus fer- 
tilis ob earn, qua, ut indicaturus sum, oleosa et volatili materia referta est, suos explicat embryones, et ad perfectionem perducit. 

Sequitur tertio loco de Ficu disputatio, in quo profecto genere non obscura est apicum natura; nam Ficus sativa (quam in tertio libro 
clarius et plenius exponemus) sine apicibus quibus privatur, poma producit, quae semper maturitatem habent : at Caprrficus grossos fert, in 
quibus stamina apicesque occultantur, qui tamen nunquam coqui, perficique possunt, lllud etiam accedit, ut tubae in pomorum cavitate positae 
sint, et ita carne undequaque circunsepiantur, ut clarissime appareat, naturam hoc potissimum spectasse, nequid crassioris corporis, viis undi- 
que interceptis, extrinsecus adveniens admitteretur. Nam, cum in aliis stirpibus tubarum oscula in aere patula reliquisset, ut facilius aer in 
fructus cavitatem ferretur, in Ficubus tubas ab aere subduxit, et in fructus cavitate seposuit, uno tantum relicto in fundo foramine, qua aer 
ingressus tubas embryonesque contentos liquores in motum cieret. Neque tamen apices adjecit, ut in syluestriurn Ficuum genere, ne fortasse 
apicum pulvisculo dulcissima caro male aftecta gustatu minus grata evaderet. Quin eos in grossis collocavit, ne a ventis, quorum patrocinio 
tota haec opinio innititur, ulla apicum corpuscula ad ilia poma deferrentur. Quare sive Ficus apices gignentes spectemus, quae sane perraro 
occurrunt, neque enim in Italia, ut in Graecia ficetis interseruntur ; sive eas quae apicibus privantur, ab apicibus embryones nequaquam affici 
manifestum relinquitur, certumque. 

Nunc de Cannabe dicamus. Dividitur Cannabis in duas species, in Cannabim marem J. B. 3. 447, et in Cannabim sterilem Dod. 
Pempt. 535, quae passim in agris cultae occurrunt, non seorsum nascentes, ut de aliis demonstratum est, sed simul; nam ex fertilis semine 
jacto utraque nascitur. Cannabis porro sterilis citius quam fertilis fruticat, et utriculos, quibus apices includuntur, exhibet, deinde, nisi 
carpatur, contabescit. Quare coloni earn metunt, quoniam arescendo ineptior evadit, relictis foecundis stirpibus, quae facile, nondum etiam 
editis fructibus, viridiore colore, grandioribus ramis, densioribusque foliis internoscuntur. Hae autem stirpes nullo sterilis pulvisculo afFectae 
quam uberrimos fructus producunt. Quin longo usu apud colonos exploratum esse accepi, cum steriles Cannabes fructiferis insertae relin- 
quuntur, cultoribus fructiferas mitius respondere ; quoniam liberiore aere frui nequeunt, densissimae siquidem hae stirpes seminantur. 

Restat Lupuli ratio. Duae quoque in hoc genere occurrunt Lupuli, una quae amenta producit, et vocatur Lupulus fcemina Cam. Epit. 
Q34; altera sine amentis fructus ferens, quam marem Lupulum Casp. Bauhino auctore Pin. 298 nuncupant. Foecundari autem marem a 
sterilis Lupuli pulvisculo tradunt. Qua autem ratione hoc contingeret, cum a nemine doceremur, extiterunt nonnulli, qui ad hunc modum 
fieri posse opinati sunt. Ex Insulis Sequanse et Matronae, in quibus Lupulus sterilis nascitur, ventorum ope apicum corpuscula ad Hortum 
Regium Parisiensem, in quo Lupulus mas colitur, deferuntur. Accedente vero aura maritali, Lupuli fructiferae embryones qui naturaliter 
deorsum pendent, erigunt se se, et squamae, quae ita positae sunt, ut illabentem pluviam hinc et hinc ab embryonibus declinent, se expandunt; 
tunc tubae patentibus osculis hiant, 

' Exceptantque leves auras, et saepe sine ullis 
Conjugiis vento gravidae (mirabile dictu!)' 

fiunt. Sed hae ex Philosophicis fontibus haustae sententiae non videntur. Nee enim his difficultatibus nobilissima naturae opera involvenda 
sunt. Ego tamen haec omnia, quae nulla ratione fieri posse apparet, ultro darem atque concederem, si illud explanaretur, quod profecto me 
fugit, qua ratione ex suis involucris embryones protrudantur, quibus succis grandiusculi facti tubas explicent. Haec enim seminalia corpus- 
cula intra fructus cavitatem deferri non possunt, nisi per tubas; tubae autem se se explicare nequeunt, nisi intra fructum succi ingrediantur. 
Quare, antequam ad embryones deferantur seminalia corpuscula, embryones esse jam foecundos, necesse est ut fateamur, Verum hoc de Palmis 
agentes plenius et clarius explanabimus. 

Concludatur itaque Morum, Juniperum, Ficum, Cannabim, Lupulum sine apicum pulvisculo fructus gignere, et ad maturitatem per- 
ducere. Si igitur hoc luce clarius esse ostendi, necesse est ut plantas sine apicibus foecundari fateamur." To condense his reasoning. 

His first argument is derived from the Mulberry. He says, " There are many kinds of these, and if there was any truth in the mar- 
riage of plants, these by intermixing would give a cross-breed, whereas each sort always produces its own kind." 

Had Pontedera made the experiment, he would have found the hybrid breed he speaks against. 

Of the Juniper he mentions, " that the female plant often produces at a very considerable distance from the male trees.'* Hence he 
concludes, " That the plant is so replete with volatile oily materials, that this is sufficient of itself to feed the embryos, without the assistance 
of the nutritive anthers, so necessary in other flowers." 

A more careful observation, and direct experiment, would have shewn that the insulated Juniper-tree would not produce its berry. 

Respecting the Fig, he makes caprification to depend upon the flies admitting air to the embryos, or to the conveyance from them, of 
the nutritive juices from the male, or wild fig. 

Of the Hemp he denies " that the intermixture of the male and female plants has any effect," 



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And this Doctrine, more recently yet, the learned Alston has endeavoured to overturn.* 

Linnaeus's direct experiment in this Essay proves the fallacy here. Of the Hop, he says, u that the female produces its cones of flowers 
equally well when separated from the nude plant, as Tournefort found in the Royal Gardens of Paris." This arose from the cone of the hop 
being a calyx, which grows equally in both instances ; but the seeds so produced have not been found to vegetate. 

The reader now sees upon what flimsy ground the opposition to the sexes of plants is founded, and is enabled to form his own conclusion, 
as to the truth of this doctrine, so admirably confirmed as it has been by LINNAEUS. 

Linnaeus, in the Hortus Cliffortiauus, page 441, however, does his opponent ample justice as an accurate botanist. " Clarissimus Pon. 
ted era, qui oculatissimus est auctor, et in examinando flores nulli inferior." 

* The arguments against the sexes of plants, very similar to those of Pontcdera, are collected by the ingenious Professor Alston, in his 
" Tyrocinium Botanicum" and in a Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants, to be found in the first volume of the " Edinburgh Physical and 
Literary Essays." In page 250 of that essay, Alston says, " I shall pass a variety of later authors who have treated on this subject ; and 
come to the most strenuous defender of the sexes of plants, who has collected all the arguments for it that perhaps can be advanced, and pre- 
tends to have demonstrated it fully: I mean the famous and very learned Carolus Linnaeus, professor of medicine and botany in the university 
of Upsal, fellow of a great many philosophical societies ; and certainly one of the greatest botanists of this age. For this great man thus 
writes : " Antheras et stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio, Rayo, Camerario, Godofredo, Morlando, 
Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio, Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c. detectum, descriptum, et pro infallibili assumptum : Nee ullum, apertis 
oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae flores, latere protest ; quod demonstratum in Sponsalibus Plantarum, Upsaliie 1746, in 4to." And 
elsewhere, " Generationem vegetabilium fieri, mediante pollinis antherarum illapsu supra stigmata nuda, quo rumpitur pollen, erflatque auram 
seminalem, qure absorbetur ab humore stigmatis ; quod confirmat oculus, proportio, locus, tempus, pluviai, palmicolje, flores nutantes, sub- 
mersi, syngenesia ; immo omnium florum genuina consideration* 

" Yet I cannot help thinking this doctrine not capable of demonstration, far less that the genuina consideratio of any flower can make 
it probable : Camerarius himself doubted of it ; Tournefort disbelieved it ; and Pontedera uses many arguments to refute it." 

In order to do away all belief in the sexes of plants, he relates the following experiments. 

1. "In the spring 1737, I transplanted three sets of the common Spinage, long before it could be known whether they were flowering 
or seed-bearing plants, from a little bed on which they were raised, into a place of the garden, full eighty yards distant, and almost directly 
south ; there being two hawthorn and three holly hedges, all pretty thick and tall, between them and their seed-bed ; and no other spinage 
in the garden, nor so near them by far : all the three proved fertile plants, and ripened plenty of seeds. 1 sowed them ; they grew and 
prospered as well as any spinage-seed possibly could do. This, I own, made me at first call in question the sexes of plants, which I formerly 

too implicitly believed. 

2. " The same year, a few plants of the common hemp, which I had raised for a specimen from the seed, being accidentally destroyed 
when very young; and finding afterwards, about the end of June, a pretty strong but late plant of Hemp, growing in the inclosure to the 
east of Holyrood-house, commonly called the Bowling-green, by itself: I caused great care to be taken of it, there not being that year any 
hemp raised within a mile of it, that I could find. This plant grew luxuriantly; and, though bad weather in the autumn made me pluck it 
up a little too soon, yet I got about thirty good seeds from it, which the succeeding spring produced as thriving male and female plants, as 
if the mother-hemp had stood surrounded with males. And, 

3. " In the spring 1741, I carried two young seedling plants of the French Mercury, long before there was any in flower, from the city 
physic-garden, the only place where it was then to be found in this country, to the king's garden at the Abbey; which are more than seven 
hundred yards distant from one another, with many high houses, trees, hedges, and part of a hill between them : and planted one of them 
in one inclosure, where it was shaded from the sun the greatest part of the day; and the other, in another, twenty-five yards distant, exposed 
to the south and west. Both plants ripened fertile seeds ; and the last shed them so plentifully, that it proved a troublesome weed for several 
years, though none of the species was to be found in that garden, for more than twenty years preceding." 

In answer to such stubborn facts, it were to be wished, that the learned professor had continued from year to year these experiments, 
and multiplied them, and under different circumstances, and then he would have fixed conviction on the mind. As the case now stands, 
these experiments are contradicted by the experiments of Millar recorded in his Dictionary, under article Generation, also by those of Lin- 
naeus in this Essay. , . 

His experiments on the Spinach and Dogs Mercury, (of the Hemp we shall speak when we come to Linnaeus s experiment on that 
plant), were either defective as not being made sufficiently apart for the winds, or insects, to perform the office of bridegroom ; or, as later 
observers remark, that even on Pistilliferous plants, males will occasionally appear, especially in the Spinach, and hence the fallacy of the 
experiments, when they turn out contrary to the Sexes of Plants. 

Speaking of the Spinach, Baron De Gleichen, in his « Observations Microscopiques," says, « J'ai aussi fait avec cette plante 1 expe- 
rience ordinaire, en 6tant les plantes males, pour empecher les plantes femelles d'etre fecondees. Dans ce dessein j'ai pris environ quarante 
grains de la semence herissee, et au lieu de les seraer, je les ai mis en terre en rang piece per piece separement, dans une distance asses con- 
siderable l'un de l'autre. Aussitot que je decouvris une plante male, je l'arrachai, et l'ecartai, jusqu'a ce que mes plantes furent enfin reduites 
au nombre de douze, des quelles je fus bien assure, que ce n'etoit que des femelles. Je visitai bien souvent ces plantes, et j ouvns de terns en 
terns ouelques ceufs seminaux, que j'examinai & l'aide du Microscope, et que je trouvai preincrement tons vuides, et bientot apres tons «- 
condes. Aussitot je visitai mes plantes encore une fois bien soigneusement pour voir, s'il n'y avoit pas parmi elles quelque amant cache. Mais 
sans decouvrir une seule plante male, je fus bien surpris de voir, que presque la moitie" de mes plantes etoient des Hermaphrodites, dont les 
vaisseaux de la poussiere avoient pousse en grand nombre entre les fleurs femelles. J'ordonnai d'abord a mon jardimer de chercher sur une 
grande couche d'un autre jardin, semee d'epinars, s'il y trouveroit plus de ces Hermaphrodites, et elles ne manquerent pas la non plus, et pro- 
duirent de la semence meure, aussi bien que celles-la. Je la cueillis soigneusement, la semai l'annee suivante et j'en retirai en plus grande 
partie des Diphytes avec quelques Hermaphrodites. J'aurois fait plutot cette decouverte, et par la je me serois dispense* de faire une experience 
superfine, si je n'avois pas ignore alors, ce que j'ai lu dans la suite dans la remarque a la Planche XL. de 1'oeuvre de Blakwell, savoir que 
Camerarius avoit trouve plus dune fois, mais pourtant pas trop souvent, des Hermaphrodites parmi les plantes dEpinars. Cependant 
cette nouvelle experience sert a nous rendre plus attentifs, et a nous dessiler les yeux dans des pareils essais. Mr. MoHer, qui s est avise" de 
combattre le Systeme de fecondation, en appellant aussi a la semence feconde, qu'il avoit obtenuc d'une seule plante d Epinars trouvee par 
hazard parmi les plantes de pastenade, n auroit pas eu cette vaine joye, s'il avoit examine* cette plante plus souvent et avec plus d attention, 
*■ #«• que 

In order rightly to understand this subject, it is necessary properly to comprehend the nature 
of vegetable bodies. 

This will be best understood, if we trace downwards the great Chain of Nature ; that is, if 
we begin with man, next consider quadrupeds, then birds, fishes, reptiles, worms, insects, and 
lastly, descend to vegetables. 

que probablement il n a pas fait. II est aussi vraisemblable, que ce qui arrive ici parmi les plantes d'Epinars, arrive plus souvent parmi les 
Diphytes, et je ne crois pas me tromper, en supposant, que ma plante de Chanvre XCVIII. que j'avois quittee femelle et trouvee male quelque 
terns apres, a £te sujette a la meme metamorphose. Nous avons vu en son lieu la meme chose dans les Monophytcs, comme dans le Mays et 
dans la noisette, ou ce changement de sexe est plus concevable, que celui des Diphytes, puisque dans celles-la il peut dependre dune confusion 
ou d'une distribution irreguliere de la seve male et femelle et des organes sexuels, qui se trouvent ensemble dans la meme plante, mais dans 
celles-ci, c est a dire dans les Diphytes, ou chaque plante est pourvue de ses propres vaisseaux et de ses organes sexuels, ce changement devient 
un enigme du quel j'abondonne l'explication aux Botanistes, que leur metier oblige a instruire le monde la dessus. Aussi jugeront-ils cette 
peine tres necessaire, s'ils considered les consequences importantes, qu'on en peut tirer au sujet de la generation, et que Mr. Linmeus nous a 
fait entrevoir par sa conjecture. Car ce Savant a soupconne, que le sexe originaire de toutes les plantes etoit celui des Hermaphrodites." 

Spalanzani, a philosopher of the highest character, after numerous experiments on bisexual flowers, where he found that removing the 
anthers produced always barrenness of the seeds, proceeded upon those plants which staggered Alston. Like that professor, he experienced 
a contradiction to the general doctrine, but confesses an accident not very uncommon in the unisexual flowers, viz. the occasional production 
of stamina amongst the females. » It has been observed," says Spalanzani, " by Linmeus, Haller, Duhamel, and others, that male flowers 
are not very infrequently found upon female individuals: a root of spinach, of which I shall speak below, furnished me with a remarkable 
instance; and the hemp in question is subject to the same accident, as I was informed by Mr. Bonnet, in a letter dated August 15, 1778. 
The letter gave me notice of an experiment which he undertook upon hemp, after I had communicated mine to him. The paragraph to which 
I allude is the following : " I began this year some experiments upon hemp. I have followed the method which I employed for rearing the 
insects on plants in solitude. My plants were covered with large tubes of glass, hermetically sealed at the top, and with the bottom sunk in the 
earth. But fortune did not favour me — instead of a female I had a male plant in one instance, and in another a plant of great expectation, 
after putting forth many flowers with pistils, produced some with stamina, close to the former, which totally disconcerted the experiment." 

Speaking of the spinach he found the same thing. " In one of my daily visits to my three plants, I perceived upon one individual an 
unexpected conjunction of male and female flowers, growing close together, and forming very elegant groups. The blossoms with pistils 
were very conspicuous, but those with stamina were so little advanced, that they could not be distinguished by the naked eye. Both sorts 
appeared to be equally numerous, but the union extended only to two branches— all the rest bore female blossoms only. I may here inci- 
dentally remark, that the great abundance of the male flowers, in the present case, is a very singular phenomenon. I have read in botanical 
writers, that a few male flowers are sometimes found in company with females, but never that they amount to an equal number, a circum- 
stance that excited my admiration with respect to this individual; for I counted two hundred and seventy-five male buds." 
But all his experiments on the Dog's Mercury, or French Mercury, turned out according to the now prevailing opinion. 
" The next and last plant producing male and female individuals, on which I made experiment, is the Mercurialis Annua (French 
Mercury). Five very small plants were removed from a garden, on the 22d of August, into five pots. They were managed in the same 
manner as the spinach during the winter (xxxn), and were all so far advanced at the beginning of spring, that there was no difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the males from the females; of the latter there were three, and these alone were preserved. By the 24th of March blossoms with 
pistils appeared upon several branches, growing out of the axilla? of the leaves, and in a few days more the number was exceedingly increased. 
They were borne upon short flower-stalks, and, as usual, consisted of two small seeds or spherical anthers. They were of a green colour 
and hairy. But here the event was just contrary to what happened in hemp and spinach. The greater part of the blossoms dropped prematurely; 
of the few that remained the seeds grew for some time, but fell before they were ripe, and when sown, they did not spring. As this took 
place before the male plants in the gardens and the fields about Pavia were in flower, I began to suppose mercury to be one of those numerous 
vegetables, which cannot propagate the species without the powder of the stamina. Meanwhile my three plants continued to put forth new 
branches, and the old ones, instead of withering, vegetated with great vigour; but still the seeds dropped prematurely. This gradual evo- 
lution and production of fresh branches, was of such long continuance, that they shewed no tendency to decay, but were producing blossoms 
with pistils when the mercury in the fields was in flower. I therefore began to entertain hopes, that the seeds now put forth, and those 
which should follow, would succeed better than the earlier seeds, more especially as the pots were exposed to the open air upon a window, 
and looked into a garden, in which grew several male individuals of this species. But my expectations were disappointed : as long as the 
three plants continued to thrive, the seeds dropped almost as soon as they appeared; nor did one of those that were sown ever come up. I 
repeated the experiment two succeeding years with the same event. 

" It therefore became necessary to vary the mode of conducting it. Being more confirmed in my suspicion, that the sterility arose from 
want of pollen, which, though it was at no great distance, did not reach my plants, I determined to bring it nearer ; without, however, 
setting individuals of the different sexes in the same place. Two male plants of mercury, reared the next year in two pots, were placed on 
the outside of a window, and two females growing likewise in pots, were set on the outside of another window. Both windows belonged 
to one room, and had the same aspect. The four roots of mercury were nearly of the same age, and of the same size. And I waited with 
great anxiety to see whether the females, on account of their vicinity, would be impregnated by the males. The seeds were constantly fall- 
ing, but not in such abundance as in the former experiment, when the males were at a much greater distance. Those which adhered went on 
thriving, and seemed as if they would ripen ; and they did accordingly arrive at maturity, and, what is of more consequence, were more 
productive; for soon after I had sown them in a pot, I had the pleasure of seeing them spring. It therefore appeared probable, that the 
vicinity of the males to the females had been instrumental in occasioning fecundation: their influence could scarce be derived from any source, 
besides the action of the contiguous pollen. 

" This experiment obviously required another: it was proper to bring the different individuals nearer to each other; I accordingly placed 
two males and two females upon the same window. It now became manifest, how much influence the approximation of the two sexes 
has upon fecundation. The two females retained almost all the seeds which were produced at this time, exceeding an hundred. The seeds 
grew perfectly ripe, and when put into the ground, were unfolded into as many plants." 


7/ -V.Y or N \'^ V 

Ca/r6n>a& .><■',//,.' 

_ A ■>/*</<•*/. _ //////.,/t,;/ /■,/ _ / , //,>;,//<>;/ . . //s/y /./80Z. 

In the more perfect animals are many instruments, and various senses, which are denied to 
the lower tribes of animated beings. 

Thus Serpents and Fishes have no feet. 

There is no nose in Insects and Worms. 

There are many Worms without eyes. 

Thus the farther we descend in this chain,* the more simple the last links will appear j 
so that m worms, as the Tenia, Gordius, and Lumbricus, many parts are wanting which 
appear in higher animals, hence called perfect, and in the remotest limits of the animal king- 
dom, we observe the Zoophyta nearly approaching the vegetable, having diffused branched, 
radical at the base, unfolding into flowers, in one word, more like to a plant than an 
animal, unless in this they approach the higher order of animals, that by means of nerves 
they have voluntary movement, hence these animal flowers have sensation, and vibrate without 
the medium of the external air, which affords motion to plants, some of these being placed in 


* For a full account of the" Chain of Nature" vide the admirable - Contemplation of Nature," by the Philosopher Bonket who 
ably dl scussed th.s subject. But the different functions of animated beings will be seen at one view in tlfe following tabll 








Rfspikation. ' 

Cetaceous animals. 
Crustaceous animals. 
■ A stomach distinguishable only by (^parous quadrupeds. 
certain expansions from the wso-J ^, erp ^ nt ?" 
phagus and intestinal canal. . . . | Cartilaginous fishes. 

Irishes, properly so called. 
An alimentary canal, not distin- C Insects. 
guishable into oesophagus, sto- ) Worms. 

mach, and intestines ) Zoophytes. 

Neither stomach nor intestines . . . PLANTS. 

Cetaceous animals 

By vessels beginning from internal J £fe" q^drupeds. 

cavities i X, er P < : n,S - 

Cartilaginous fishes. 

Fishes, properly so called. 

Crustaceous animals. 
_ Worms. 
By vessels opening on the external f vr Axrrc 
. surface jfi^AiNlb. 

f ( Man. 

^ j Having a heart with two ventricles j Quadrupeds. 

and two auricles ) Cetaceous animals. 

3 I (Birds. 

£ > With one ventricle divided into se- C Oviparous quadrupeds. 

"^ veial cavities and two auricles. . | Serpents. 

With one ventricle and one auricle] Cartilaginous fishes, 
i 'g I | fishes, properly so called. 

oq J -of f Crustaceous animals. 

wA "8 Whose heart is formed of one Ion- j Insects. 
-c * J ghudinal vessel, tuberous and ! Worms. 

|| ] contractile, in which there is a j Insomecrustaceousanimalsthere 
15 | whitish fluid instead of blood.. . \ is observed something resem- 
^ C L bling a heart. 

( In which no heart has been yet"\ 
I observed, but only vessels filled (Zoophytes. 
with juices of a nature different | PLANTS. 
from that of blood J 

By lungs free from all adhesion, f Jf an ; , 

and spungy ' -j Quadrupeds. 

°' ( Cataceous animals. 

By lungs free from all adhesion, { Oviparous quadrupeds, 
vesicular and muscular . . \ Serpents. 

By lungs adhering to the ribs, and f R . , 
provided with appendages \ Birds - 

J Cartilaginous fishes. 
Fishes, properly so called. 
Crustaceous animals. 
By stigmata, or boles in different j Insects. 

rings | Earth-worms. 

By an opening called trachea, or 7 . 

by external fringes j Aquat.oworms. 

By tracheae PLANTS. 

In which there have been disco- ~\ 

i- > Polype*, 


vered neither stigmata nor tra- 





Internal and osseous. 


Cetaceous animals. 

Oviparous quadrupeds. 

.Fishes, properly so called. 
Internal and cartilaginous Cartilaginous fishes. 

External and corneous J Pcrf ect insects. 

\ Lithophytes. 

{Crustaceous animals. 

eternal and ligneous. . ]&£"** ^ * *"***' 

Which have no skeleton j w^ms" ** ** "**• 

( Polypes. 

( Men - 
Viviparous J Quadrupeds. 

( Cetaceous animals. 

Oviparous, whether the evolution 
of the eggs takes place within or< 
without the female 

Which propagate also by slips... -I Polypes. 


Oviparous quadrupeds. 


Cartilaginous fishes. 

I il><>, properly so called. 


Crustaceous animals. 

( Worms. 


C Greatest part of insects in the 
A body wholly muscular or con- J first state of their trdnsforma- 

tractile < , t,o n. 

' i Worms. 
(.Pol j pes. 

I Cetaceous animals. 
Muscles covering the skeleton... . <{ R irds - 

(Oviparous quadrupeds. 
I Cartilaginous fishes. 
I Fishes, properly so called. 
A skeleton covering the muscles.. . \ ^ cr ^t insects. 

t Crustaceous animals. 
No muscular power PLANTS 





f a'.h /There are no bodies in which secretions \ A „ . . 
.(.-> J \ are not carried on. j Ml bav,n * am 



L , , I Cetaceous animals. 

Nerves and brain easily distinguish- ; Birds, 
able from the stinal marrnu, 1 Oviparous quadrupeds. 


Cartilaginous fishes. 
.. ' L Fishes, properly so called. 

Nerves and brain scarcely distin- i Insects. 
guishable from the spinal mar- < Crustaceous animals 

T row (Worms. 

In which there have not yet been " 

n which there have not yet been ) „ 
discovercdnerves,brain,OTspinal V nF3™' 
marrow \ "LAN! S. 



the abysses of the sea, as the Serratula, which has been so admirably illustrated in the works of 


Plants so nearly approach the lower tribe of Zoophyta, that it is hardly possible to distin- 
guish the one from the other. 

Plants have no stomach or intestinal tube, but absorb fluids by their roots, and also through- 
out their whole surface. Hence a small cutting of a branch placed in water imbibes nourish- 
ment at its several pores. So neither the stomach nor intestines of the Sertularice or Polypi have 
yet been demonstrated. Plants have no heart, yet they have vessels in which flows the sap, which 
rises to the extreme branches, so neither can any heart be discovered in this lower tribe of animals. 

Hence it appears, that the vegetable kingdom only differs from the animal in having no nerves 

for voluntary movement,* 

He who inquires into the, generation of plants, should also consider what passes in the animal 
kingdom. We see insects undergo a metamorphosis, and when this is accomplished, these 
become sexual And when these have undergone this change, for example, the butterflies, they 
are not more dissimilar from their eruca, or larva, than flowers are to their plants. 

The moth of the silk-worm has no mouth, and after its metamorphosis its whole employment is 
to propagate its kind.f 

* In the " Philosophia Botanica, 
Animalia crescunt, vivunt et sentiunt. 

" LiNNiEUs makes the same discrimination, " Lapides crescunt. Vegetabilia crescunt et vivunt. 
That is, Minerals grow. Vegetables grow and live. Animals grow, live, and feel. The per- 
ceptivity, or feeling of plants, has been maintained by some writers, as Dr. Percival and the Bishop of Landaff. Vide the learned Bishop's 
" Chemical Essays" vol. v. p. 158; also the " Philosophy of Botany ," chapter " On the supposed Perceptivity of Plants." 

f Caterpillars may be easily distinguished from worms or maggots, by the number of their feet ; and by their producing butterflies 
or moths. When the sun calls up vegetation, and vivifies the various eggs of insects, the caterpillars are the first that are seen, upon almost 
every vegetable and tree, eating its leaves, and preparing for a state of greater perfection. They have feet both before and behind; which 
not only enable them to move forward by a sort of steps made by their fore and hinder parts, but also to climb up vegetables, and to stretch 
themselves out from the boughs and stalks, to reach their food at a distance. All of this class have from eight feet, at the least, to sixteen ; 
and this may serve to distinguish them from the worm tribe. The animal into which they are converted, is always a butterfly or a moth ; 
and these are always distinguished from other flies, by having their wings covered over with a painted dust, which gives them such various 
beauty. The wings of flies are transparent, as we see in the common flesh-fly; while those of beetles are hard, like horn; from such the 
wing of a butterfly may be easily distinguished; and words would obscure their differences. 

The life of a caterpillar seems one continued succession of changes ; and it is seen to throw off one skin only to assume another ; which 
also is divested in its turn: and thus for eight or ten times successively. We must not, however, confound this changing of the skin with 
the great metamorphosis which it is afterwards to undergo. The throwing off one skin, and assuming another, seems, in comparison, but a 
slight operation among these animals ; this is but the work of a day; the other is the great adventure of their lives. Indeed, this faculty of 
changing the skin, is not peculiar to caterpillars only* but is common to all the insect kind; and even to some animals that claim a higher 
rank in nature. We have seen the lobster and the crab out-growing their first shells, and then bursting from their confinement, in order to 
assume a covering more roomy and convenient. 

With respect to caterpillars, many of them change their skins five or six times in a season ; and this covering, when cast oft*, often seems 
so complete, that many might mistake the empty skin for the real insect. Among the hairy caterpillars, for instance, the cast skin is covered 
with hair; the feet, as well gristly as membraneous, remain fixed to it ; even the parts which nothing but a microscope can discover, are 
visible in it ; in short, all the parts of the head; not only the skull, but the teeth. 

In proportion as the time approaches in which the caterpillar is to cast its old skin, its colours become more feeble, the skin seems to 
wither and grow dry, and in some measure resembles a leaf, when it is no longer supplied with moisture from the stock. At that time, the 
insect begins to find itself under a necessity of changing; and it is not effected without violent labour, and perhaps pain. A day or two 
before the critical hour approaches, the insect ceases to eat, loses its usual activity, and seems to rest immoveable. It seeks some place to 
remain in security; and no longer timorous, seems regardless even to the touch. It is now and then seen to bend itself and elevate its back ; 
again it stretches to its utmost extent: it sometimes lifts up the head, and then lets it fall again; it sometimes waves it three or four times 
from side to side, and then remains in quiet. At length, some of the rings of its body, particularly the first and second, are seen to swell 
considerably, the old skin distends and bursts, till, by repeated swellings and contractions in every ring, the animal disengages itself, and 
creeps from its inconvenient covering. 

How laborious soever this operation may be, it is performed in the space of a minute ; and the animal, having thrown off its old skin, 
seems to enjoy new vigour, as well as having acquired colouring and beauty. Sometimes it happens that it makes a new appearance, and 
colours very different from the old. Those that are hairy, still preserve their covering; although their ancient skin seems not to have lost a 
single hair ; every hair appears to have been drawn, like a sword from the scabbard. However, the fact is, that a new crop of hair grows 
between the old skin and the new, and probably helps to throw off* the external covering. 

The caterpillar having in this manner continued for several days feeding, and at intervals casting its skin, begins at last to prepare for its 



,/,., A' .1 /">'. 

<''>>//",■,,/ ., / f //> 



. J..,,./.-...-:*./-/.../.,./ / 7 1 ''■■ </„■>„„■„ < /., v 



In the same manner all plants undergo a metamorphosis, they shake off their lawa state, and 

change into an aurelia. It is most probable that, from the beginning, all the parts of the butterfly lay hid in this insect, in its reptile 
state; but it required time to bring them to perfection ; and a large quantity of food, to enable the animal to undergo all the changes requisite 
for throwing off these skins, which seemed to clog the butterfly form. However, when the caterpillar has fed sufficiently, and the parts ot 
the future butterfly have formed themselves beneath its skin, it is then time for it to make its first great and principal change into an aurelia, 
or a chrysalis, as some have chosen to call it ; during which, as was observed, it seems to remain for several days, or even months, without 

life or motion. 

Preparatory to this important change, the caterpillar most usually quits the plant, or the tree on which it fed; or at least attaches itselt 
to the stalk or the stem, more gladly than the leaves. It forsakes its food, and prepares, by fasting, to undergo its transmutation. In this 
period, all the food it has taken is thoroughly digested ; and it often voids even the internal membrane which lined its intestines. Some of 
this tribe, at this period also, are seen entirely to change colour; and the vivacity of the tints in all, seem faded. Those of them which are 
capable of spinning themselves a web, set about this operation; those which have already spun, await the change in the best manner they are 
able The web or cone, with which some cover themselves, hides the aurelia contained within from the view; but in others, where it is 
more transparent, the caterpillar, when it has done spinning, strikes into it the claws of the two feet under the tail, and afterwards forces in 
the tail itself, by contracting those claws, and violently striking the feet one against the other. If, however, they be taken from their web 
at this time, they appear in a state of great languor; and, being incapable of walking, remain on that spot where they are placed. In this 
condition they remain one or two days, preparing to change into an aurelia ; somewhat in the manner they made preparations for changing 
their skin. They then appear with their bodies bent into a bow, which they now and then are seen to straiten : they make no use of their 
legs ; but if they attempt to change place, do it by the contortions of their body. In proportion as their change into an aurelia approaches, 
their body becomes more and more bent ; while their extensions and convulsive contractions become more frequent. The hinder end of the 
body is the part which the animal first disengages from its caterpillar skin ; that part of the skin remains empty, while the body is drawn up 
contractedly towards the head. In the same manner they disengage themselves from the two succeeding rings; so that the animal is then 
lodged entirely in the fore part of its caterpillar covering : that half which is abandoned, remains flaccid and empty ; while the fore part, on 
the'eontrary, is swollen and distended. The animal, having thus quitted the hinder part of its skin to drive itself up into the fore part, still 
continues to heave and work as before ; so that the skull is soon seen to burst into three pieces, and a longitudinal opening is made in the three 
first rings of the body, through which the insect thrusts forth its naked body, with strong efforts. Thus at last, it entirely gets free from its 
caterpillar skin, and for ever forsakes its reptile form. 

The caterpillar, thus stripped of its skin for the last time, is now become an aurelia ; in which the parts of the future butterfly are all 
visible; but in so soft a state, that the smallest touch can discompose them. The animal is now become helpless and motionless; but only 
waits for the assistance of the air to dry up the moisture on its surface, and supply it with a crust capable of resisting external injuries. Im- 
mediately after being stripped of its caterpillar skin, it is of a green colour, especially in those parts which arc distended by an extraordinary 
afflux of animal moisture ; but in ten or twelve hours after being thus exposed, its parts harden, the air forms its external covering into a firm 
crust and in about four-and-twenty hours, the aurelia may be handled without endangering the little animal that is thus left in so defence- 
less a situation Such is the history of the little pod or cone that is found so common by every path- way, sticking to nettles, and sometimes 
shining like polished gold. From the beautiful and resplendent colour, with which it is thus sometimes adorned, some authors have called it 
a Chrysalis, implying a creature made of gold. 

Such are the efforts by which these little animals prepare for a state of perfection; but their care is still greater to provide themselves a 
secure retreat, during this season of their imbecility. It would seem like erecting themselves a monument, where they were to rest secure, 
until Nature had called them into a new and more improved existence. For this purpose, some spin themselves a cone or web, in which 
they lie secure till they have arrived at maturity: others, that cannot spin so copious a covering, suspend themselves by the tail, in some re- 
treat where they are not likely to meet disturbances. Some mix sand with their gummy and moist webs, and thus make themselves a secure 
incrustation ; while others, before their change, bury themselves in the ground, and thus avoid the numerous dangers that might attend them. 
One would imagine that they were conscious of the precise time of their continuance in their aurelia state; since their little sepulchres, 
with respect to "he solidity of the building, are proportioned to such duration. Those that are to lie in that state of existence but a few days, 
make choice of some tender leaf, which they render still more pliant by diffusing a kind of glue upon it ; the leaf thus gradually curls up, 
and withering as it enfolds, the insect wraps itself within, as in a mantle, till the genial warmth of the sun enables it to struggle for new 
life, and burst from its confinement. Others, whose time of transformation is also near at hand, fasten their tails to a tree, or to the first 
worm-hole they meet, in a beam, and wait in that defenceless situation. Such caterpillars, on the other hand, as are seen to lie several 
months in their aurelia state, act with much greater circumspection. Most of them mix their web with sand, and thus make themselves a 
strong covering : others build in wood, which serves them in the nature of a coffin. Such as have made the leaves of willows their favourite 
food, break the tender twigs of them first into small pieces, then pound them as it were to powder; and, by means of their glutinous silk, 
make a kind of paste, in which they wrap themselves up. Many are the forms which these animals assume in this helpless state. 

The aurelia, though it bears a different external appearance, nevertheless contains within it all the parts of the butterfly in perfect 
formation ; and laying each in a very orderly manner, though in the smallest compass. These, however, are so fast and tender, that it is 
impossible to examine without discomposing them. When either by warmth, or increasing vigour, the parts have acquired the necessary 
force and solidity, the butterfly then seeks to disembarrass itself of those bands which kept it so long in confinement. Some insects continue 
under the form of an aurelia not above ten days ; some twenty; some several months ; and even for a year together. 

The butterfly, however, does not continue so long under the form of an aurelia, as one would be apt to imagine. In general, those 
caterpillars that provide themselves with cones, continue within them but a few days after the cone is completely finished. Some, however, 
remain buried in this artificial covering for eight or nine months, without taking the smallest sustenance during the whole time : and though 
in the caterpillar state no animals were so voracious, when thus transformed they appear a miracle of abstinence. In all, sooner or later, the 
butterfly bursts from its prison ; not only that natural prison which is formed by the skin of the aurelia, but also from that artificial one of 
silk, or any other substance in which it has enclosed itself. 

The efforts which the butterfly makes to get free from its aurelia state, are by no means so violent as those which the insect had in 
changing from the caterpillar into the aurelia. The quantity of moisture surrounding the butterfly is by no means so great as that attending 
its former change ; and the shell of the aurelia is so dry, that it may be cracked between the fingers. 

If the animal be shut up within a cone, the butterfly always gets rid of the natural internal skin of the aurelia, before it eats its way 

h through 

are seen naked in the flower, whose only business then is to increase and multiply its kind: for the 
exit of the butterfly from the lawa, and the evolution of flowers is accomplished in the same 

The outer bark (cortex) splits, and is converted into a permanent CALYX, which becomes 
the outer covering of the flower, and protects the tender fruit. 

The inner bark (liber) more pliant, and diaphanous, is further extended into the CO- 
ROLLA adorned with colours, which placed like the wings of the butterfly, through the me- 
dium of the air, vibrates and flutters, which motion otherwise it would not be able to procure. 

But the principal parts of the flowering body are the STAMINA and PISTILLA, so much 
so, that no flower can be said to be without them. This appears to be the case up to the pre- 
sent time, in the examination of so many thousands of flowers, so that there exists no true 
flower, which does not possess these two organs. 

The STAMINA derive their origin from the ligneous substance (cortical part), which was 
formerly the inner bark (liber). 

This appears most evident in the asarum (asarabacca), whose twelve stamina proceed from 
twelve fibres found in the composition of the inner bark. 

Flowers with a plenitude of corolla (double flowers) illustrate this doctrine, where the stamina, 
by receiving too much nutriment, are so softened and dissolved, that these become actual petals, 
for the ligneous substance in them is thereby converted into the soft nature of the liber, whence 
petals were, as we saw before, derived. 

All stamina possess vessels containing farina, which indeed they discharge, but not without 
the strictest observance of the laws of Nature. 

through the external covering which its own industry has formed round it. In order to observe the manner in which it thus gets rid of the 
aurelia covering, we must cut open the cone, and then we shall have an opportunity of discovering the insect's efforts to emancipate itself 
from its natural shell. When this operation begins, there seems to be a violent agitation in the humours contained within the little animal's 
body. Its fluids seem driven, by an hasty fermentation, through all the vessels ; while it labours violently with its legs, and makes several 
other violent struggles to get free. As all these motions concur with the growth of the insect's wings and body, it is impossible that the 
brittle skin which covers it should longer resist : it at length gives way, by bursting into four distinct and regular pieces. The skin of the 
head and legs first separates; then the skin at the back flies open, and dividing into two regular portions, disengages the back and wings: 
then there likewise happens another rupture in that portion which covered the rings of the back of the aurelia. After this, the butterfly, as 
if fatigued with its struggles, remains very quiet for some time, with its wings pointed downwards, and its legs fixed in the skin which it 
had just thrown off. At first sight the animal, just set free, and permitted the future use of its wings, seems to want them entirely: they 
take up such little room, that one would wonder where they were hidden. But soon after, they expand so rapidly, that the eye can scarce 
attend their unfolding, From reaching scarce half the length of the body, they acquire, in a most wonderful manner, their full extent and 
bigness, so as to be each five times larger than they were before. Nor is it the wings alone that are thus increased : all their spots and paint- 
ings, before so minute as to be scarce discernible, are proportionably extended ; so that, what a few minutes before seemed only a number of 
confused, unmeaning points, now become distinct and most beautiful ornaments. Nor are the wings, when they are thus expanded, un- 
folded in the manner in which earwigs and grasshoppers display theirs, who unfurl them like a lady's fan : on the contrary, those of butter- 
flies actually grow to their natural size in this very short space. The wing, at the instant it is freed from its late confinement, is considerably 
thicker than afterwards; so that it spreads in all dimensions, growing thinner as it becomes broader. If one of the wings be plucked from 
the animal just set free, it may be spread by the fingers, and it will soon become as broad as the other, which has been left behind. As the 
wings extend themselves so suddenly, they have not yet had time to dry; and accordingly appear like pieces of wet paper, soft, and full of 
wrinkles. In about half an hour they are perfectly dry, their wrinkles entirely disappear, and the little animal assumes all its splendor. 

Those aurelias which are enclosed within a cone, find their exit more difficult, as they have still another prison to break through : this, 
however, they perform in a short time; for the butterfly, freed from its aurelia skin, butts with its head violently against the walls of its 
artificial prison ; and probably with its eyes, that are rough and like a file, it rubs the internal surface away ; till it is at last seen bursting its 
way into open light ; and, in less than a quarter of an hour, the animal acquires its full perfection. 

Thus, to use the words of Swammerdam, we see a little insignificant creature distinguished, in its last birth, with qualifications and 
ornaments, which man, during his stay upon earth, can never even hope to acquire. The butterfly, to enjoy life, needs no other food but 
the dews of heaven; and the honeyed juices which are distilled from every flower. The pageantry of princes cannot equal the ornaments 
with which it is invested; nor the rich colouring that embellishes its wings. The skies are the butterfly s proper habitation, and the air its 
element: whilst man comes into the world naked, and often roves about without habitation or shelter; exposed, on one hand, to the heat of 
the sun ; and, on the other, to the damps and exhalations of the earth; both alike enemies of his happiness and existence— A strong proof 
that, while this little animal is raised to its greatest height, we are as yet, in this world, only candidates for perfection ! 


Of these vessels, which are called anthers, the figures, the cells, the modes of opening, are 
no less accurately defined, than the capsules of fruits, and the farina, like seeds, has its precise 
magnitude, colour, and figure. 

The PISTILLUM derives its origin from the medullary substance in plants, and therefore is 
placed in the center of each flower ; and in this part are always found the rudiments of the seed, 
which advances by degrees into a fruit. 

This part is called the Germen, to which is always affixed another part, which is named 
Stigma, and is most in vigour at the period of flowering. 

The medullary, is the most essential part in vegetables, and is multiplied and extended ad 
infinitum, so that whenever this is lost, the plant of necessity must die. 

When considering this subject, we must carefully avoid being led into error by two seeming 
objections; first, as regards the culms of grasses, and other hollow stems, where the medullary 
part will be found to line the inner part of the bark; and, secondly, in large trees, where the 
trunk is altogether solid, but here the extreme branches have their necessary medulla. 

Thus vegetables, like insects, are changed by a metamorphosis, and with this distinction only, 
that flowers remain fixed to one spot, nor are they furnished with chylopoietic viscera, as with 
most insects, and these are also fed by the parent plants to which they are attached. 

Thus it is, that the Cortex is changed into the CALYX; the Liber into the COROLLA; 
the Wood into the STAMINA; and the Medulla into the PISTILLUM.* 

Thus it is, that the fructification exhibits the common parts of plants naked and unfolded. 
Thus it is, that fructification puts an end to growth in that part where it springs, otherwise 
it would have shot forward into branches, and so on, ad infinitum, but now becomes expended 
here by explicating new and distinct animated bodies, with their seeds. 

And since the seeds are the medulla naked in the germen, and this medulla requires to be fed 
and increased by the cortical substance, (whence all nourishment and growth proceeds in plants, 
as well as animals), hence these seeds cannot advance a step without this necessary aid from that 
active supporter of life, which these have become separated from. 

Hence the medullary seeds require to receive the cortical covering from the farina in the anthers, 
which, as we have proved before, is derived from the Cortex {outer bark). How this invest- 
ment takes place has been variously explained. 

MoRLANDf and others assert, led to it by the doctrine of Leuwenhook, that the farina 
enters by the stigma, passes along the style, and then pervades the tender rudiments of the 

That this doctrine is not founded in fact, appears from several observations. 
A most evident contradiction is furnished by the Amaryllis Formosissima {Jacobean 
Amaryllis), which explains this mysterious circumstance. 

The flower of the Amaryllis, when produced in the hot-house, has its pistillum pointing 
downwards, when from its stigma there oozes about midday a limpid clear drop, which shortly in- 
creases to such a size, that one expects every instant to see it fall. 

* This doctrine of Linnaeus is considered at full in our " Philosophy of Botany" to which we refer the reader, 
f The arguments of Morland are stated at length in our " Philosophy of Botany" 


By degrees, about three or four o'clock, it is reabsorbed into the style, and entirely vanishes, 
until the following day, about ten o'clock, when it again begins to appear, and attains its full 
perfection about midday ; and afterwards a second time, by a scarce perceptible decrease, it 
returns whence it originated. 

Now each particle of farina possesses, enclosed by an elastic membrane, a fine aura, 
which escapes oftentimes with a vehement explosion, when this farina is made to fall on warm 
water, although so subtile in its nature, as nearly to escape detection by the naked eye. 

Hence it is, if we agitate some of the anthers over the stigma of this Amaryllis, so that 
their contained farina shall meet this limpid drop, we shall soon see, as I have often experi- 
enced, the globules of the farina lose their determinate shape, assume irregular broken forms, 
and the clear fluid on the stigma become clouded and yellow, and even opake streaks may be ob- 
served running along the style towards the embryo-seeds. Immediately after this the whole liquid 
drop on the stigma entirely disappears. 

Another evident example is furnished also by the Mirabilis {Marvel of Peru), whose farina 
is so very coarse, that each globule nearly exceeds the dimensions of the style itself, along which 
therefore, only the subtle aura, ox pollen, can pass, leaving behind the reliquice of the farina, or 
membranous covering, in broken fragments on the stigma, as in the former instance.* 

When the plants are in flower the farina falls from the anthers, and is dispersed, just as seeds 
escape from their plants, the fruit being ripe.f 

At the time of flowering, or what is the same, when the farina is shedding, the stigma ap- 
pears on the pistillum most vivid, and moistened with dew, certainly at some part of the day. 

The stamina either surround this stigma, or, if the flowers nod, the pistillum curls upwards, $ 
so that the farina may the more readily fall upon the stigma, upon which it is not only affixed by 
its dew, but in that moisture split, and made to discharge the fructifying aura, or pollen. This 
mixing with the lymph of the stigma, is then absorbed, and carried down to the embryo-seeds. 

* Grew had before explained this in the same way as Linnaeus, " In discourse hereof with Sir Thomas Millington, I observed, that 
it was very credible that the powder, or farina, by falling upon the pistillum did communicate to the seeds a prolific virtue, that they did not 
enter in gross substance, but only some subtile and vivific effluvia, to which the visible powder is but a vehicle." 

•\ Some of these have the remarkable property, like the seed-vessel of the noli me tangere (balsam), the wood sorrel, &c. to ejaculate 
their farina to a distance. The kalmias have their stamina enclosed in nitches of the corolla, and hence the filaments are curled like a bow, 
so that when the curve is at the utmost, the anthers are liberated from their cells, and the farina spirted over the pistillum. 

The stamina of the Parietaria are also held in such a constrained curved position by the leaves of the calyx, that as soon as the latter 
become fully expanded, or are by any means removed, the stamina, being very elastic, fly up, and throw their pollen about with great force. 
I have lately, says Doctor Smith, observed a similar circumstance in the flowers of Medicago falcata. In this plant the organs of generation 
are held in a straight position by the carina of the flower, notwithstanding the strong tendency of the infant germen to assume its proper fal- 
cated form. At length when the germen becomes stronger, and the carina more open, it obtains its liberty by a sudden spring, in consequence 
of which the pollen is plentifully scattered about the stigma. The germen may at pleasure be set at liberty by nipping the flower so as gently 
to open the carina, and the same effect will be produced. 

J This motion of the pistillum in every stage of the flower is beautifully illustrated in our Picturesque Botanical Plate of the Lilium 
Superbum (Superb Lily), one of the Martagore lilies. But in no example does it appear more evident than in the Gloriosa Superba 
(Superb Lily), where the pistillum bends at right angles in order to approach nearer the anthers. Also in the Spartium Scoparium 
(Common Broom) the pistillum bends itself spirally, like a French horn, in order to approach nearer to the males. Vide our Account and 
Plate of the Meadia (American Cowslip). 

Linnaeus might have noticed here the contrivances of Nature, where the pistilla rise above the stamina. These may be beautifully 
observed in our superb plate of the Passiflora Ccsrulea (Common Passion-flower), where the three upright stigmata curl downwards 
till they come into contact with the stamina. The same may be observed in the Nigella (Devil in the Bush), and the Epilobium (Rose- 
bay Willow-herb), Sec. 


///' ! ^////v///// 


A Cutting, 

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Weettoy in whose hollow 
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Leuf ,>/' the .Y,trroir-l.,ned JZalmui. 

JX of the Broiul - loafed Kalrnia . 

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London,, hthh.died l>v /y 'Thornton .<M r z.jn\>, f . 

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*In the month of January of this year the Antholyza Cunonia {Scarlet-flowered Antholyza) 
flowered in a pot placed in the window of my dining-room, but it produced me no fruit, because 
the confined air had not power to waft the farina to the stigmas. 

Observing about midday one of the stigmas very dewy, I plucked off, by means of a fine pair 
of forceps, an anther, and gently brought it into contact with it. The spike remained eight or 
ten days longer adorned with flowers. 

Then, indeed, cutting the stem in order to preserve it as a specimen in my herbarium, I 
observed a fruit in that single flower, over which I had placed the anther, which had swollen to 
the size of a bean. 

The Ixia Chinensis {Chinese Ixia) flowered in the stove, the windows being shut, and all 

the flowers had abortive fruit. 

I therefore took away the anthers from the flowers of another Ixia, and with these I sprinkled 
two of the flowers, and the following day only one stigma of a third 'flower. 

The sermina remained only in these three flowers, which swelled and bore seed; but, indeed, 
the fruit was in one of these three matured only in one cell 


The exterior petals of the Ornithogalum (Star of Bethlehem) so closely connive, that 

although they admit air to the germen, they scarcely suffer the intrusion of the farina arising 

from another flower. This daily presented new flowers furnishing fruit, nor did fcecundation fail 

in any one instance. I therefore carefully, with a bent hook, removed the anthers from a single 

flower, and, as I had expected, it happened, that this single floxver proved abortive. 

After eight days I repeated the same experiment, and with a similar result. 


The Nicotiana fruticosa {Shrubby Tobacco) was growing in a garden-pot, and produced 

flowers and fruit most abundantly. 

From a flower newly opening, I extracted the anthers which had not yet burst, and removed 

at the same time all the other flowers. 

The germen here neither produced a fruit, nor swelled. 


The Asphodelus fistulosus {Onion-leaved Asphodel) growing in an urn, I removed to one 
corner of the garden, and from one of the flowers which opened on that same day, I withdrew 

the anthers. 

Hence that germen proved abortive. 

* This dissertation is divided into heads, or sections; and the first section relates to the Bisexual Flowers, or flowers where the two 
sexes are in the same corolla. Q n 

On another day I repeated the same experiment, and by using a flower furnished from 
another quarter of the garden, I sprinkledthe pistillum of this with its farina. 
Hence this germen proved fruitful. 


From a Chelidonium corniculatum (Scarlet-homed Poppy) growing in a remote quarter 
of the garden, I removed all the anthers in a flower which first appeared, and then carefully 
plucked away all the rest of the flowers. 

On another day I made a similar experiment, but over the pistillum of this last I sprinkled 
the farina taken from another flower of the same species. 

The result was, that the first floiver produced no seed. 

From the second experiment I obtained perfect fruit. 

The^se Experiments decisively prove that the Anthers are the male organs in plants, and 
perfectly disprove the opinion of some who have taught, that the Stamina are those parts of the 
fructification, which only separate excrementitious matter.* 


What might have convinced them on the contrary, is the universal appearance of the Stamina 
and Pistilla in all flowers, for none want these organs, although many flowers are devoid of Calyx, 
and many even have neither Calyx or Corolla, as the Hippuris.f 


All farmers know, that when rain falls upon the rye in flowers, % it washes off the Faiina on 
the Anthers, and hence occasions many glumes in the spike to be empty of seeds. 


Even gardeners remark the same every year in their fruit-hearing trees. 
exposure to rain, from this cause disappoint the expectation of fruit. § 

The flowers, by long 


Aquatic plants at the time of ftWring rise above the water, for no other purpose than that 
the Farina may reach the Stigma unimpaired, for after impregnation they dip under water. || 

* This is levelled against the illustrious Tournefort, who held this doctrine, as did Alston 
as the calyx and Petals, but none are found to want the apices" (stamina), Sylloge Stirp extra Britan 

do trL^d"?!! / ^ h wT bey ° n ; ^ fl ° Wer ' 3nd if rain f3llS WhilC k " in fl ° Wer ' the dust is cl °« ed > a » d h -ee the husbandmen 
do truly predict a bad crop ; but the same holds not with barley, where the anthers lie close within the husk 

at d,LI„i S D e e S rio e df ly H PPUeS ^ '**"**■ Wh ° Se ^^ beC ° me *»*" " U * WUXi bUt in the a PP le and P ear the "™— anthers ripen 
apply the wa'f T ^ " * dlSap P° mted of fru * ful seed *> who at this time make much use of the watering pot, unless they 

apply the water in a pan beneath, as many are in the habit of doing. 7 

|| Vide our account of the Nymphcea Nelumbo. 


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Z<md<m . Piiblifhrd by J) r Thornton l)cc r i±5cg . 

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State of the Flower after TK 0' Clock J?M. 

State of the Flower in the morning before JUL . 

Petals closed v , 

Fetals open 

v Jel. 

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Zondon. Published ry IV ITiornton Oct' l*x8o8. 

W? R.DunJcarton sculp 

The Nymph^a alba (White Water-Lily) every day in the morning rises from the water and 
opens its flower, so that at midday it rises above the surface, by means of its peduncles, nearly 
three inches. 

In the evening it is entirely closed, and shut up, when it sinks into its watery bed. 

It is about four o'clock in the evening when it first contracts its flower, and it passes the 
whole night under water, which was observed two thousand years back, in the time of Theo- 
phrastus, who observed this in the Nymph^ea Lotus, a plant so resembling our Nymph#:a, 
that it scarcely can be distinguished from it, unless in its foliage, which is toothed in the 

Thus Theophrastus hath written in his History of Plants (Book 4. Chap. 10.) concerning 

the Lotus. 

" They report, that its head and flowers sink into the Euphrates, and descend even to the 
middle of the night, and sink to that depth, that even at daybreak it cannot be reached with 
the extended arm ; then it returns, and emerges out of the waves, and opens its flowers more 
and more to the rising sun, advancing through the day, and the flower being completely ex- 
panded, it even then rises higher, so that at length it reaches to a considerable height above the 


The same is nearly the custom of our White Nymph^a.* 


Many flowers are closed at night and before the coming on of rain; but the farina being shed, 
they remain afterwards always open.f 

* It is still open to doubt, whether this beautiful history of the Nymphs Lotus be not a fable. (Vide the Account of our Picturesque 
Botanical Plate of the Nymphs Nelumbo). Might not the dipping of the flowers after impregnation ; with their dosing ^in the evening, 
being then covered by an unattractive calyx, before fecundation ; give birth to the belief, that the full-blown flowers of the Nymph^as do 
actually immerse, and rise again for several successive mornings ? Still, however, it cannot fail to strike the observer, that the peduncles, or 
flower-stalks, hang at right angles to the root, and thus elevate themselves so as to reach different heights, so that the flowers shall be above 

the water, however swollen. +. t 

But the greatest prodigy in this way, is the Vallisneria, which grows plentifully in the nvers of Italy. The female plant, for the .sexes 
are upon different plants, has a spiral stem, like a screw, which it contracts or unwinds, according to the depth of the currents it mhabits. 
The male has a short stalk, which snaps asunder, and the male flowers being liberated from the plant then expand, and swim on the surface 
of the water, and are conveyed in this way often to distant brides, with whom they celebrate their nuptials. 

+ Several plants, especially those with compound yellow flowers, nod, and during tbe whole day turn their flowers towards the sun ; 
to wl to the east in the morning, to the south at noon, and to the west toward evening ; which is very observable in the sonchus arvens.s 
the so'w-thistie. And I believe every body knows, that a great part of plants in a serene sky expand the.r flowers and as ,t were with 
cheerful looks behold the light of the sun ; but before rain they shut them up ; e. g. the Tu.ip. The flowers of the Draba, 
whitlow grass, the Parthenium foliis ovatis crenatis, bastard fever-few with egg-shaped crcnated leaves, and the tnentahs o. ■winter- 
green, hang down in the night, as if the plants were asleep, lest rain or the moist air should injure the dust. The trefoils and 
one species of wood-sorrel, shut up or double their leaves before storms and tempests, but in a serene sky expand or unfold them, so that the 
husbandman can pretty clearly foretell tempests from them. And it is well known that the Bauhinia or mountain ebony plants, 
and Cassia, observe the same rule. The flowers of goats-beard open in the morning at the approach of the sun and shut about noon; hence 
it is called }ohn-go-to-bed-at-noon. Parkinsonia, tamarind tree, Mschynomene, or bastard sensitive plant, and several others of the d,adel- 
phia class, in serene weather, expand their leaves in the day-time, and contract them in the night. The tamarind tree is said, by Alpmus 

and Acosta, to enfold within its leaves the flowers or fruit every »^> <°J™^ ^^'^fjowing are those most common in this 
Hence the Horologe, or Botanical Watch, is formed from numerous plants, ot which the toiiowing arc 

xicui-c i"<= „!„.„ ,t a n Hifiucium pilosella, Mouse-ear Hawkweed, opens 

countrv. Leontodon taraxacum, Dandelion, opens at 5—0, closes at 8—0. hieraciom ra»»» > -^ JT 

at 8 doses at 2. Sonchus l*v,s, smooth Sow-thistle, at . and at 1 .-.2. Lactuca sativa, cultivated LetUce, at 7 and 10. Ira- 
oopoooTlute™, yellow Goatsbeard, at 3-5 and at o-io. Lapsana, Nipplewort, at 5-6 and at to-.. Ntmph^a alba, wh,te 
water Lily, It 7 an/ 5 . Papaver kuoicaule, naked Poppy, at 6 and at ,. Hemerocall.s eulva tawny Day-Uly, at 5 and at 7-8 
CotvoLvuLUS, at 5-6. Malva, Mallow, at Q-.o, and at >. Arekarea purpurea, purple Sandwort, at o-,o, •>*«*-* 



In what manner the Parnassia and Saxifrage approach their Anthers to the Stigmas is 
well known.* 


The Ruta Graveolens {Common Rue), a very familiar plant, moves one of its Anthers 
every day over its short Pistillum, until each of them, in order, has deposited its Farhia.f 


The Ornithogalum Nutans (Neapolitan Starfloiver) has six broad Stamina conniving in 
the form of a bell, of which the three exterior are shorter than the others by one half, so that it 
would appear that the Anthers of these could never pass their Farina over the Stigma, but 
Nature, with admirable wisdom, has turned the anthers inwards towards the bell, the shorter 
ones becoming first mature, so that they do actually accomplish their office. % 

II. A day would sooner fail me than examples, $ but I pass these by, and hasten to the con- 
sideration of the unisexual flowers. 


Several species of Momordica (Cucumbers) which are cultivated with us, like other Indian 
vegetables, in close stoves, have there very frequently produced female flowers, and these, al- 
though at first very flourishing, in a short time have begun to wither, nor have they produced 
seed, until I instructed the gardener, as soon as he should discover a female flower, to pluck a 
male, and place it over the female flower. By this art, for a certainty, we have produced fruit, 

Anagallis, Pimpernel, at 7—8. Portulaca hortensis, garden Purslain, at Q — 10, and at 11 — 12. Dianthus prolifer, proli- 
ferous Pink, at 8, and at l. Cichoreum, Succory, at 4 — 5. Hypoch^eris, at 0—7, and at 4 — 5. Crepis, at 4 — 5, and at 10 — ll. 
Picris, at 4 — 5, and at 12. Field Calendula, at 9, and at 3. African Calendula, at 7, and at 3 — 4. 

So in almost all sorts of flowers we see how they expand or open by the heat of the sun, but in the evening, and in a moist state of the 
air, they close or contract their flowers, lest the moisture getting to the dust of the anthera should coagulate the same, and render it incapable 
of being blown on the stigmata : but (which is indeed wonderful!) when once the fecundation is over, the flowers neither contract in the 
day, in the evening, nor yet against rain. 

* It is a pleasing sight to see the stamina in many flowers advance over the pistillum. In the Parnassia, and Saxifrage, the stamina 
regularly rise, but after impregnation the stamina fall back in a circle. I have often witnessed this in the several Sempervivums (house- 
leeks), where the six more mature stamina advance to the central females, then they retreat, and the remaining six next advance, as regular 
as with a troop of horse, and then the whole twelve fall back in a circle. 

f I examined, says the illustrious Dr. Smith, the RtTTA Chalepensis (African Rue), which differs very little from the common Rue, 
and found many of the stamina in the position which Linnaeus describes, holding their antherae over the stigma ; while those which had not 
yet come to the stigma were lying back upon the petals, as well as those which, having already performed their oflice, had returned to their 
original situation. Trying with a quill to stimulate the stamina, I found them all quite devoid of irritability. They are stout, strong, conical 
bodies, and cannot, without breaking, be forced out of the position in which they happen to be. The same phenomenon has been observed 
in several other flowers ; but it is no where more striking, or more easily examined, than in the Rue. Vide Tracts on Natural History, 
p. 174. 

J Where there are several stamina in a flower, these are often of a disproportionate size, and then the lower tier become first mature, 
and embrace the young pistillum, which increasing in growth, in a few days after celebrates her amours with the taller beaux. Thus the 
Lychnis Flos Cuculi (Meadow Lychnis) has ten stamina, of disproportionate sizes, five of which arrive at their maturity before the other 
five. The same may be seen in our common Blue Bell (Hyacinthus). The position of the anthers on their filaments as respects the pis- 
tillum, is worthy also of observation. Vide our Picturesque Plate of the Rhododendron Ponticum (Pontic Rhododendron) which illus- 
trates both these observations. 

§ The reader will find a great many other examples among our Select Plants. 


(Mdr .<■, „t thr .torn, fflrWfa) 

' //<■/////.' - 'M& ' ttaui ,v/-- 

Henderson del. 

/>/ { -v^'/- 

Gddwall .ffiilv. 

London . I'tiblis/ici hy /)'' Thornton Dec* I.1808. 

and such is our present confidence, that we could pledge ourselves to make any female flower 
fixed upon, fertile.* 


In the month of April I sowed Hemp-seed {Canabis) in two pots. 

The young plants came up in such abundance, that each pot contamed thirty, or forty, 

^placed both to the light on a window-seat, but in opposite parts of the house, so that all 

communication was necessarily prevented. 

In both situations the Hemp flourished greatly. 

In one of the pots I suffered the male and female plants to grow together, to flouush, and 
prodlelit, which was ripe in the month of June, and afterwards being macerated m water, 
and committed to the earth, shot up within twelve days. 

But in the seeond I plucked up all the male plants as soon as they had advanced, so that I 
could discern the anther-bearing males from the pistiUeanng females 

The surviving females indeed flourished, and copiously presented the, long p stds, bu the 
fl0 w™ined°a very long time, as if « that !■**■ of ft. I. ^^^T^ 
that in the mean time in the other pot the fruit had reached maturity, and the ptsttls, quit 

Afferent way, had instantly faded, ^^Z^^mi*^ 

aS3S : :»£ SX - — n 0r firs t ^ ^ 

* The Cucumfter affords a familiar example of the Sexes ^^'^J^^^ ^ ^Sa'^L.t tbe suLns. and being 
/emaZe; that is, some of the flowers have only *i nun* >, £ U » m ^J ^Jf ged to £ luc / t he ma , M , or s( «men,/e^ flowers, and 

called " The Garden." 

Plants have their sexes, and when Simmer shines 

The Bee transports the fertilizing meal 

From flower to flower, and e'en the breathing air 

Wafts the rich prize to its appointed use. 

Not so when Winter scowls. Assistant art 

Then acts in Natures office, brings to pass 

The glad espousals, and ensures the crop. 

• .. to ohserve that all stameniferuus , or male flowers, produce honey. Aristolochia Clematitis (Common 

U " S3 rtoTsiU ways of the fecu^ion £ ^- ^;;;^ 1^^— ,o„ g and tubular, and its margins 
R/rttoorO- It has a linguiform corolla, winch at its inferior part is s P , ^ n rf which „ surrounded b y 

f a ta flat and spearp^inted extremity. The £tf » ^^ ^.Tiy" but is provided with an hexagonal stigma, which is very 
£ Lifter., which are shorter than the germen itself. ^^^TnZmU' the pollen upon the stigma, as the flower stands always 

ZuL and on its upper surface has pores. The anthe rs_ canno l JWJ J q{ ^ flower without belng used, 

S; ££* **Z * P*** of flowering The P o Uen ^J^ k «£J£?£ flower by . th i„, hut firmly closed piece of gauze 
Tno insects come near the flower. And indeed if it be tried ,** a P ^^^ ^ . ^ the flowers w hen ,«-.,„ 

n„ seeds will be formed. It happens indeed not «J^"^*f T * "^ This insect is the Tircr., pek.icornis. The round bottom of 
Tile to find the flower, this last withers without having a single «*• f which is turned towards the interior, 

Tfl w« i sin its interior, quite smooth, but the tubular -^"J*^ tTo^TiinU great difficulty return, and is obliged to 
o a!" f m a kind of funnel, through which the insect ™J^.^£-U to and fro, and so deposits the pollen on the stigm. 

Z in in the cavity. Uneasy to be confined in so^na ^e «*, ^ J^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , by which 

Ifter this is done, ^^^J^^^^S^ of Lure in fecundatmg this seemingly triflmg flower! 

means the insect gets free, n no u to 



to collapse, before that they had been a very long while exposed for the aecess of the malt 
j anna* 

And lastly, when these virgin plants began to be affeeted with age, I diligently searched 
along several botanists for all the calyxes, and I found these large and flourishing, but the 

t n,7" T re f : U " d ' ***?**' ^pressed, membranaceous, dry, not exhibiting 
the slightest trace of cotyledons or pulp.f s 


T , ^ ^"r PULCHELLA V*™**™* Clutia) was also, during the months of June and 
July, kept in the same window of my room. 

The male and female plants were in different pots. 
abor« h ve. /We " ^^ ab ° Unded in ** * ^ed, not a sing.e flower dropt 

Then I separated the pots to different windows in the same room, nevertheless, all the female 
flowers produced perfect fruit. icinaie 

I lately removed the mak altogether, and only left the f em ak plan,, having fl rst removed all 
the former, and newly expanded, flowers. 

From the axilla of each leaf there daily appeared fresh ones, which remained for the space 
rf eight or twelve days, but afterwards the peduncles turning yellow, they fell off empfy of 

A friend, a botanist, who was delighted with this experiment with myself, one dav ner 
suaded me, that I should bring a single m ak fl^er from the stove in the garden, whfch he 

mm, -fc So ,„„,,! pl.„,, „«, ^na* bieimi.l ; if , ho, do no. hnnnT.o Tow ,h! Tf I ' ""° '" * C °" Ve '"' " "" »■*• 

« gas aaars: ;r hi r;Lr g ";o:: P s: ,t ^-^ «*-&*- — » - » -» 

Lin. Amaen. Acad. Tom. i. 3 7 5. attention, can save it from perishing in the coming winter 

Bo^VZeTIt £5g£ reSPCCtS ^ A ° AVE A — Sfe*i %> i vide the description accompanying our p^^ 
_ Hence it is that a „ double flowers fc so ^ ^ than ^ 3 £ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ _ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

prosecuted these experiments, the results have been as record^ b Wus Vide^ " it;*"** '" *" ^^ where 1 b ™ 
nmentsofSpalanzani, and the eonfutation of them, will be recorded at con^derabTe lel^h C I '°*°^ ^^ where the expe- 
^'^n*™'- are found i„^^ however, must be taken, that on the 

./«** plant has in conrse of time produced only male floors, and vice oersT Jo^TvT m- J™ * ^ ** -Ponced, that 
whole fructmcation of a Palm, which he saw growing at Montpelier and which not 3. VI 1 ^^ t0m> L P " 351 ") describes *e 
ones bearing dates. R Ay us in his History of Piants, (vol. fi Eg K tiat „e h^fe.f " """*" ° f "^ fl ° WerS ' but •>»>-» 
ment loned by Bauhine . Thig variety h fc ^^ S^tttt 2"S "* ^ ~ i " ie *» 

(Chap. iv. p. i 45 .), mentioning that class of trees which are male and female i 7 A * f , ' earned JuN ««™> in his Doxoscopia 

trees, when they have for many years produced flowers witbouTfh, it afterwards somT ^n fi *"" ^ ^ " That such ki "^ «f 
thinks, " should be farther enquired into." This, since TunTus' Sl ime ZZ T """ Pr ° dUCe fruit without flo wers. This," he 

Jis class are whony^e, while young; but as ^ZlZl V^ZX?^ ££*" ^/T'' ** ^^ *» <™« 
Thts fact M IL lbr has frequently himself observed in the Mulberry-tree »^ \Z C ! v % Z™' *"* a{terWardsbeC0 ™ ™ tird yf e ™le- 
whatever .elates to botany, has observed, that a large L ENT[S c" s Z S Tree) in t I 1 T*T * ^^ ^^^ VerSed in 
flowers, but that for three years past, it had also produced plenty of fmit * ' " *^" B ' h^ Produced only maZe 



t //<//< \ ' 4 ///,///■ > //,// r/H />// ////' .if///// .///////. 


) //////r/y/7 


I Siltjf 

/..■/i. /.'/i . ////•//•-//, ./ by h Thomt 

placed in contact with a female flower recently open, and tied this flower with a piece of red 

silk to know it again. 

The next day I removed the male flower, and this one germen indeed remained, and pro- 
duced fruit. 

After the experiment, I took another male flower from the stove, and by means of a slender 
forceps, I removed from it one of its Anthers, and having scratched it gently with the knib of a 
pen, I took care that a little of its farina might fall upon one of the Stigma, having guarded the 
remaining two stigmata by a cap made by an hollow roll of paper. 

This Germen also grew to a fruit of the ordinary size, and afterwards being transversely 
dissected, it alone produced a large seed in one of the three cells, the other two being empty. 

The other flowers, not having suffered impregnation, every one of them, becoming withered, 


The repetition of this experiment is also as readily to be repeated as the former. 


The Jatropha Urens (Stinging Jatropha) flowers every year in my hot-house, but the 
female flowers have preceded the males, and before eight clays they lost their petals, and faded, 
before the male flowers were expanded. 

Hence not only they produced no fruit, but the flowers themselves dropt. 
Thus it happened that, until the year 1752, we could obtain no fruit of the Jatropha. 

But in this year, the male flowers were in vigour upon a taller tree, at the precise time the 
females appeared on a small Jatropha growing in a pot. 

This pot I placed under the tree producing male flowers, and in this manner I accomplished,, 
that the female flowers produced seed, which, being sown in the earth, grew. 

Two years after I placed these male flowers under a piece of paper, until the Farina had 
fallen upon it, which I preserved rolled up, if I recollect right, for four or five weeks, when 
this same Jatropha on another branch produced female flowers. 

Then I sprinkled that Farina so long preserved in paper upon three flowers, the only ones at 

that time expanded. 

These three female flowers only became fruitful, whereas all the other floxvers which appeared 

hi the same corymbus fell off abortive* 

I have frequently since amused myself by taking the male Farina from one plant, which 
by sprinkling upon the females of another, I have always found the seeds thereby rendered 

* The same experiment was made on the J.troph. Im««.l» {Imperial Jatropha) and with exaetly the same result. The male 
flowerslaHyoccupy the upper part of the plant, and are soon to he distingmshed from ^females. 

+ AsimU, experiment was m,^^^ 
£Si£t eo^n" ^KS-Sff wh^ L same —on of the Sexual Hypothesis. 



The Datisca cannabina {Smooth-stalked Bastard Hemp) was raised from seed about ten 
years ago in my garden. 

It abounded in flowers, but these being females, therefore proved abortive. 
In order to obtain a male plant I procured some seeds from Paris. 

These also grew well, but what vexed me was, they all proved females, and, therefore, 
produced me also flowers without fruit. 

At length, in the year 1757, I procured other seeds. 
Out of these some plants were males, and in the year 1758 flowered. 

These I removed into a border very remote from the females. 
Therefore, when the male flowers were mature for shedding their Farina, I held a * paper 
under them, and gently agitated the loose spike of flowers with my finger, until the whole surface 
was nearly covered with yellow Farina. 

I carried this to the female flowers, which were produced in another part of the garden, and 
sprinkled it over them. 

The result was, these female flowers alone ripened their fruits where I had dispersed the 
Farina, and their seeds attained their due magnitude; but in all the rest, being fertilized by no 
Farina, there appeared not a vestige of any seeds.f 


The Pholnix Dactylifera (Date-bearing Palm) a long time flowered at Berlin, but pro 
duced no fruit. 


* Koelreuter, a famous experimental botanist, sent, from Karlsruhe to Gleditsh, the farina o{ the mnU «..„„ 
by post with which, bymeansof acamelVhairbrush, he impregnated a female plants his ^ £, forth l^^ZZ^Z 
seeds, from which he raised young plants. ' outainea n P e 


barret S ° metimeS ' h ° Wever ' Under such circumstances, the seeds arrive at their due magnitude, but, as was long since observed, 

, P v " f '; J T b B ° ba n' °T7 °f ^ T ySiC Garde " ^ ° Xf ° rd ' ab ° Ut thirt y- ei S ht y™° «*°. which was before the doctrine of the different 
exes of plants was well understood, herborising in the country, observed a plant of the Lychnis Sylvestris simplex, whose flower! hou £ h 
they had, yet there were no apices; and finding this not in one, but in all the flowers upon the same nlant hU m Zl n ■ 

might be a new species, and therefore he marked the plant, and took care to have it preserved tin the LedTwe e 1! 2 t- M '7" 
cured them full hard and firm, outward appearance Remplis des germe (as Mr. Geoffrey has t H^lT™ to sow tS T 
garden next season in a proper place, but there was never a plant which sprung up. * S ° W them m hlS 

I had this account from the celebrated Dr. Sherard, at whose desire I have inserted it, and both of them bein<r „ w „„« „f u 
and so good credit, I may venture to say it sets the opinion of the different sexes of plants upon another fcolg 2 t TZi e d t nl S 
our modern authors; for h« imports that it is not the nourishment of the gross substance of the seed itself, which is hereby meant Tr he 
increase ot the seed-vessel, which is thereby designed, for, as is observed, a hen ca» lay an egg without previous congress wSe '„c k 
this shall be the same for colour, taste, (when new-laid) smell, bigness, with another egg which has the tread fas thev coil 7^ ,w 

has been fecundated by the Materies Seminalis Masculina ; but the difference appears when both are put under the hen to £ L £ 1 
one shall pullulate or chit, and the other shall become fetid and rot. P t0 be hatched ' the 

The Ltchnis Dioica (Wild Red Lychnis) being made by me the subject of experiment, gave additional confirmation „f »h. <s 
of Plants." Vide Blair on the Generation of Plants, in his Botanical Essays. additional confirmation of the Sexes 

The learned Dr Hope, late professor of botany in the university of Edinburgh, a strenuous advocate for the sexes of plants, made the 
following experiment. He found of this Lychnis dioica two kinds, the white and the red ; and he was convinced (as are since this time Pro! 
fessorMartyn and Mr. Curtis) that these are not varieties, but distinct species, and that the white never produces naturally red flowerT He 
placed under the same bell the red and the white Lychnis Dioica, the one a male and the other a female nlant anH th, till , ■ ! i • 


. jU ■ #««' ' 

2, . Av//,i/>- //'">/ ) 


Ia - ///'/• -//fV/jnt 

CM* ft wb* 

Httul'-'si'ti id ' 

imdm.NmUh ********> 



Some of the male flowers, from a tree flourishing at Leipsic, were sent by the post, and in 
this way fruit was obtained, and some of these I planted in my own garden, and they germinated, 
and at this present time are in a very flourishing state.* 

Kjempher has long since reported, how necessary it was found by the nations in the East, 
who live by the fruit of the Palm-tree, and are the true Lotophagi, to plant a few male plants 
amongst the female trees, if they expected any harvest; hence, upon an invasion, they were 
led to cut down the males, that the enemy might feel a want of provisions, and sometimes this 
destruction was made as a vengeance upon a resisting country .f 

* This curious account of the date-bearing Palm is to be met with in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. xlvii. p. 169, including a letter 
which was read to that society May 2, 1751, with some ingenious observations on that subject by one of the members of that learned society, 
Doctor Watson, to whom it was addressed. 

Professor Mylius's letter to Dr. Watson, dated at Berlin, Feb. 20, 1750—51. " The Sex of Plants is very well confirmed, by an 
experiment that has been made here on the Palma major foli is flab ellif or mibus. There is a great tree of this kind in the garden of the Royal 
Academy. It has flowered and bore fruit these thirty years, but the fruit never ripened, and, when planted, it did not vegetate. The palm- 
tree, as you know, is a Planta Dicccia, that is, one of those in which the male and female parts of generation are upon different plants. We 
having therefore no male plants, the flowers of our female were never impregnated with the farina of the male. There is a male plant of this 
kind in the garden at Leipsic, twenty German miles from Berlin. We procured from thence, in April 17^9, a branch of male flowers, and 
suspended it over our female ones ; and our experiment succeeded so well, that our palm-tree produced more than an hundred perfectly ripe 
fruit; from which we have already eleven young palm-trees. This experiment was repeated last year, and our palm-tree bore above two 
thousand ripe fruit. As 1 do not remember a like experiment, I thought it convenient to mention it to you ; and, if you think proper, be 
pleased to communicate it to the Royal Society." 

f As Linnaeus aimed at brevity in this dissertation, we have here, as concisely as possible, commented upon his text, hoping that our 
readers will not feel fatigued by our enlarging a little upon so very curious a topic by renewing again the subject of the Palm. 

" The palm-tree grows very high forming one stem. — A sort of bough shoots out and bears the fruit in a kind of sheath, which opens as it 
grows. The male bears a large bunch something like millet, which is full of a white flower, and unless the young fruit of the female is im- 
pregnated with it, the fruit is good for nought; and to secure it they tie a piece of this fruit of the male to every bearing branch of the female. 
Strabo observes that the palm-tree in Judea did not bear fruit, as at present; which probably may be owing to their not having the male 
tree ; concerning which I could get no information. But the fruit of the female tree, without the male, drops off, or comes to no per- 
fection." Vide Pocock's Description of the Eaft, vol. i. 206*. 

"On the morning of the 2 ill, I had the pleasure of seeing from my window one of the most remarkable sights in nature. A female palm 
(Phoenix dactylifera Linnaei) had in the night put forth its blossoms from the spatha ; I went thither at sun-rise to see it, whilst the dew was 
yet falling. I saw a gardener, the proprietor of the palm, climbing up the palm, which equalled our largest firs in height. He had a bunch 
of male flowers with which he powdered the female, and by these means fecundated them." Vide Hasselquist's Voyages and Travels in the 
Levant, English Transl. p. 112. 

1 The first thing I did after my arrival in Egypt, was to see the Date-tree, the ornament and a great part of the riches of this country. It 
had already blossomed, but I had, nevertheless, the pleasure of seeing how the Arabs assist its fecundation, and by that means secure to 
themselves a plentiful harvest of a vegetable, which was so important to them, and known to them, many centuries before any botanist 
dreamed of the different sexes in vegetables. The gardener informed me of this before I had time to inquire, and would shew me, as a very 
curious thing, the male and female of the Date or Palm-tree ; nor could he conceive how I, a Frank, lately arrived, could know it before ; 
for, says he, all who have yet come from Europe to see this country, have regarded this relation either as a fable or a miracle. The Arab, 
seeing me inclined to be further informed, accompanied me and my French interpreter to a Palm-tree, which was very full of young fruit, 
and had by him been wedded or fecundated with the male, when both were in blossom. This the Arabs do in the following manner : when 
the spadix has a. female flower that comes out of its spatha, they search on a tree that has male flowers, which they know by experience for 
a spadix which has not yet burst out of its spatha : this they open, take out the spadix, and cut it lengthways in several pieces, but take 
care not to hurt the flowers. A piece of this spadix, with male flowers, they put lengthways between the small branches of the spadix 
which hath female flowers, and then lay a leaf of a Palm over the branches. In this situation I yet saw the greatest part of the spadices 
which bore their young fruit ; but the male flowers which were put between were withered. The Arab besides gave me the following 
anecdotes: First, unless they, in this manner, wed and fecundate the Date-tree, it bears no fruit. Secondly, they always take the 
precaution to preserve some unopened spathce with male flowers, from one year to another, to be applied for this purpose, in case the male 
flowers should miscarry or suffer damage. Thirdly, if they permit the spadix of the male flowers to burst or come out, it becomes useless 
for fecundation : it must have its male dust, (these were the words of the Arab), which is lost in the same moment the blossoms burst out 
of their case. Therefore the person, who cultivates Date-trees, must be careful to hit the right time of assisting their fecundation, which is 
almost the only article in their cultivation. Fourthly, on opening the spatha, he finds all the male flowers full of a liquid, which resembles 
the finest dew; it is of a sweet and pleasant taste, resembling much the taste of fresh dates; but much more refined and aromatic: this was 
likewise confirmed by my interpreter, who hath lived thirty- two years in Egypt, and therefore had opportunities enough of tasting both the 
nectar of the blossoms, and the fresh dates. 

n Thus much have I learned of this wonderful work of Nature, in a country where it may be seen every year. I shall have the honour to 
give a relation of the use, and divers other qualities of the Date-tree, at some other opportunity." Vide Hasselquist's Letters to Linnaeus. 

" In one of our excursions we had an opportunity of observing a curious process in the vegetable world. It has already been observed by 
naturalists, but is too uncommon to be known to readers of every class. The Date-trees were now in blossom ; and we remarked the Arabs 
to be busied about the branches. It is necessary to ingraft all fruit-trees to obtain good fruit . but the propagation of the Date is in another 

o manner, 


The experiments on the Maize related by Logan are perfectly conclusive.* 

manner, and intimately resembles that of the animal creation. There is a male as well as a female Date-tree, which are distinguished from 
each other by the colour and shape of the blossoms. The male-tree yields no fruit ; but the gardener must be careful, every spring, to cull 
as many blossoms from the male as will serve his purpose. One of these at least he must inwrap and bind up in the blossom of the female- 
tree ; without which she will prove as barren as the male: 1 Vide Irwin's Series of Adventures in the Course of a Voyage up the Red Sea. 

8vo. Edit. 1787. 

Sonnini, the latest traveller in Egypt, gives us the following account of the uses of the Date-tree. 
" Among the trees of Egypt there is none more widely dispersed than the Date-tree : it is every where to be found, in the Thebais and in 
the Delta ; in the sands as well as in the cultivated districts. Although it requires little culture, it yields a considerable profit, on account of 
the immense consumption of its fruit. The date varies in quality ; that which is produced in the environs of Rosetta is delicious, and boats 
are laden with it for the market of Cairo. 

" To climb trees which have no branches but at their- top, and the straight and slender stem of which cannot support a ladder, the Egyp- 
tians employ a sort of girth fastened to a rope, that they pass round the tree. On this girth they seat themselves, and rest their weight ; 
then, with the assistance of their feet, and holding the cord in both hands, they contrive to force the noose suddenly upwards, so as to catch 
the rugged protuberances with which the stem is symmetrically studded, and formed at the origin of the branch-like leaves, that are annually 
cut. By means of these successive springs, the people of this country reach the top of the Date-tree, where, sitting, they work at their ease, 
either impregnating the females, or gathering the clusters of fruit : they afterwards descend in tjje same manner. 

" The dates are not the only produce of this species of Palm-tree; from hard beating its bark, its branch-like leaves, as well as the rind of 
its clusters of fruit, threads are obtained, from which are manufactured ropes and sails for boats. The leaves serve likewise for making 
baskets and other articles. The very long, rib of the branches, or leaves, is called in Arabic dsjerid. From its combined lightness and solidity, 
it is employed by the Mamaluks, in their military exercises, as javelins, which they throw at each other from their horses when at full speed." 
Vide Sonnini's Travels into Egypt, 4 to. Ed. 1800. p. 400. 

* His book is entitled, " Experiments and Reflections on the Generation of Plants, by James Logan, President of the Council, and 
Chief Justice of the Province of Pensilvania," and was published in 1739. From this Essay I shall extract what the ingenious author has 
related respecting the Maize, or Indian Corn. 

M As several doubts had formerly occurred to me in respect to the generation both of plants and animals, when I first heard of the Farina 
fcecundans, or impregnating male dust, I conceived great hopes that these would be easily solved, and the whole of this intricate affair 
receive considerable light from the discovery. And as I had long ago observed, with surprise, the singular way of growth of our Indian 
Wheat or Maize, I judged it, of all the plants I had seen, or perhaps of any that Nature produces, the most proper one for experiments of 

this kind. 

Indian Wheat grows to the height of six, eight, and sometimes ten feet. At the top of the stalk it bears a thready tuft or tassel (called 
by Malpighi, Muscarium) furnished with apices, which yield the farina. From the joints of the stalk below, the ears grow out, which 
are six, eight, ten, and sometimes even twelve inches long. These consist of a pretty solid substance, about an inch thick, set quite round 
with grains regularly disposed in rows, in a very beautiful manner. Generally there are eight such rows, often ten, sometimes twelve ; and 
I once saw sixteen : there are commonly forty grains in each row, more or less ; which, in their first rudiments, and whilst the stalk they 
grow upon is soft and tender, may justly be called the ova or eggs: to each ovum there adheres a white, fine, smooth filament, which, ex- 
cepting that it is hollow, resembles a thread of silk. These filaments are disposed one by one in order, betwixt the rows from that end where 
the ear rises from the stalk to the other, where they creep from under the case that incloses the ear, and make their appearance, in the open 
air, in a bundle or skein: their colour in this part is mostly whitish, though sometimes a little yellow, red, or purple, according to the nature 
of the plant they grow from : these filaments, as I formerly suspected, are the real styles of the eggs. 

Intending therefore to make some experiments on this plant, towards the end of April I planted four or five grains on hillocks, as is usual 
in sowing maize, in each corner of a little garden I had in town, which was about forty feet wide, and eighty long. About the beginning 
of August, when the plants were full grown, and the tufts on the top, and the ears on the stem, had acquired their full extent, I cut off 
these tufts from every plant on one hillock. On another, without meddling with the tufts, I gently opened the leaves that covered the ears, 
and cut away from some all the styles, and then closed the leaves again ; from others a quarter part, from others one half, and from others 
three quarters, and left the rest untouched. I covered another ear, before the skein of styles appeared out of the case, with a piece of very 
fine and soft muslin, but so. loosely, that its growth could not be injured ; and whilst the furzy texture of the muslin suffered it to receive 
all the benefit of the sun, air, and showers, the farina was effectually secluded. I left the plants on the fourth hillock, as I did these, except 
in the circumstances above-mentioned, unmolested, till they were fully ripe. 

After the beginning of October, when it was time to inquire into the success of my experiments, I made the following observations. In 
the first hillock, where I had cut off all the tufts, the ears, whilst they remained covered with their husks, looked indeed very well, but were 
small, and felt light when handled; and not one perfect grain to be found in them, except in one large ear, which grew out somewhat farther 
from the stalk than usual, and on that side too which faced another hillock in a quarter from whence our strongest winds most commonly 
blow : in this ear alone I found about twenty grains which were full grown and ripe. I attributed this to some farina brought by the wind 
from a distant plant. In those ears from which I had plucked off some of the styles, I found just so many ripe grains as I had left styles 
untouched. In those covered with muslin, not one ripe grain was to be seen : the empty or barren eggs were nothing but mere dry 


From these experiments, which I made with the utmost care and circumspection, as well as from those made by a great many other 
persons, it is very plain that this farina, emitted from the summits of the stamina, is the true male seed, and absolutely necessary to render the 
grain fertile. A truth which, however certain, yet was unknown till the present age : the discoverer of this grand secret of Nature, therefore, 
ought ever to be remembered with due applause. Sir Thomas Millington, sometime Savilian Professor, seems first to have taken notice 


of[t£e cZewrcal // • vu*tm'jJta& ■ 

(<///*■ ']{. 4 /><>t.r' .£/«/' ,H/<r XIX 

/,„._/;,//.,/„/ ty&'&**ti»>.@«>r i#>*. 




To relate more examples would fatigue the reader unnecessarily.* 

All Nature proclaims the truth of this doctrine, and every flower of every sortf might be 
adduced as a witness in its favour. The day would sooner fail me than matter. 

in. Leaving innumerable other proofs behind, from both bisexual and umsexual flvwers, I 
hasten to the consideration ol hybrid, or nude plants, a subject indeed meriting every attention. 

Some have ascribed every thing to the female, after Habvey. 
Others again to the male, after Lewenhock. 

As for myself, I ascribe the offspring to both, which the production of mules does confirm. 
To instance this, there are two different kinds of mides. 

From the mare and male ass proceeds the most useful mule, which in its gentle nature resem- 
bles its mother; but in its mane and tail, and cross on its back, the ass. This animal, winch 
fetches an high price in Spain, is called Hinnus.+ 

November the same year. (See Chew's Works, p. .6, ,71.) Malp oh, no whe hat , J.n , ^ 

self, though he allows it necessary for fecundation yet d.d no suspect that J en ered h J - ^ & ^ grain fc ^ 

after, asserted that it entered the germe,. through the canal of the style. (*^ 1^ 7 j. J 

middle of this canal ; nor is it to be doubted, but that stricter ^^J^J^^ZZ the A mar vl^ and Marvel of Peru, before recorded. 
This doctrine by Mor.and has been refuted by Linnxus, ,rom h. *£«£ " l„ w U plea e To consult our " Philosophy of 
Such as may be curious to see the reasonings upon Morland founded th.s opinion, WW p 


• a *« ni-ri^ii^ rhieflv new facts. The Question was 
* The reader will call to mind, that the author of the prize «~^™^£^**L<^ vel impugnare, pra, 
Pro Pernio proposita « Sexum Plantarum argumentis et exper.ment.s . noy». ^SZ^tZ^o^ seminis et perfectionem seminis 
missa exposition historica et physica omnium Plant*, <,« ahqu d ad f U „da Uon m « P ^ ^ ^ y .^ 

et fructus confeme creduntur." So that the beautiful proofs of the Sexes of Plants which conridced more at 

duce into this dissertation, which will form an apology for the number and length of some 
large in our " Philosophy of Botany." 

+ It has always been an interesting subject of enquiry, to all |U~£***^f *££X^ ^ntuT into ZZTJL 
intricL tribes of plants, which, on account of the obscurity of _th«, ^ rue ihcati n w aU P u o^ j^ JJ*J ^ ^ ^ ^ 
Ciypfogaiiua, were really endowed with flowers and seeds, like other vegetab les, j>r tot 7 Aoanson, and Necker. The 

thTfubfect of Mosses. Many botanists denied their having any flowers, or sexual "fj^?™ °^ „ has been , or can in future be 
last-mentioned author writes in a very singular and decisive style concerning then, Jtatcv . _ y ^ DlLLEN .os, more philo- 

said of the sexes and copulation of Mosses, we are ^ermined to consider a^ a fie .on and ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

sophical than this writer, judged from observation and analogy, that Mosses _were ne and , stilla in Mosses , but h.s 

had discovered both, but proved to be mistaken. MtCHtt. was the fin ^° J^™ .^ and accurate Dr . Hedw.o, of Leipsic, pub- 
observations were neglected, and scarcely credited by subsequent :«*«. £> * ^37,^ number of Mosses, in so satisfactory a 
lisheo his History of Mosses in , r «, in which he demonstrates the parts of ^>£" <f a a £ bc . doubt remaining on the sub- 

manner, and illustrates the structure and economy o these .minute p £*« eomp£dy , ^^ ^ ^.^ ^ 

ject. He proves that the capsula of, (the autfcera of L™ us ) ™" ers are what IjINNjEU s and others took 

Lting polien, is in fact the fruit, and the powder which it contain, £**.£ «£.£ m fl^ ^ ^ .^ 
for the female. The celebrated Schreber had before -^pected th. to bothc o« , * te his enquirfes 

■< This opinion is now adopted by all scient.fic botanists; and it has b en ^anxious y w»he communicate , upon the best autho- 

through the other orders of the Cryptogamia. This ^^1^^ ^ £ ™ J^ reached , bis kingdom . In this work 
rity, Lme account of his discoveries, published in a prize dissertation «*™f^™™ m , a J Tbe EquM is referred by him to 
Dr Heow.o illustrates the fructification of Filices, Alga, Muf Cl , and ftj, » thirty - P.^ rf ^ ^ which coyers the lamM<e 
the class IVtraiuIrta Monogyma. The anther*, or male organs of the Ag inc. .be .^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ Thfi 

while the fungus is young, and afterwards generally becomes m -^?!tetubZcuIa of the Uchencs tuberculati have been first scutelU; 
scutell* of the Lichens, he is persuaded, are capsules of the seed and ha the • " 6e ™< The ^ rf L;c/ie . r ciKar£ , he believes to 

in which opinion every one who has studied this genus of p an s w, 1 probaWy agree w t ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

be roots; probably those of many other resemble it are so likewise. H.s 
of Harvey was ' Omne animal ex ouo.' " Dr. Smith. 

. In the Rev. Mr. Tow^s - Journey through Spain," a work replete with ^ ^^^ '^ "* * ^ ** 
perf^y ^depended. poo. speaking of these mules, he enteKnln. ^ -Uh ^^^^ ^ hunt , of which there are four 

« I prolonged my stay at the Escurial, chiefly for the purpose of being present a : tne 
everyyefr. TL«^^rfj™b^^^ iBtaiite who , „ representing one of the 
« On the day appointed, Mr. Listen had the goodness to pta« me w, h P ^^ ft wa$ ^ ^.^ p , ain> h 

From the female ass and horse the other kind of mule is engendered, with a disposition as 
obstinate as the ass, but the beauty and outward appearance of the horse. 

Experience also shews us, that if the male goat of Angora marries with the she goat, the kid, 
the offspring of that intercourse, will inherit the external structure and valuable coat of its father; 
whereas, if the marriage is reversed, the kid so produced will have the vile, -worthless hair of its 

The breed from Spanish rams and Swedish ewes will resemble the Spanish sheep in wool, 
stature, and external form ; and have the hardiness of Swedish sheep. An English ram without 
horns, and a Swedish horned ewe, will produce sheep without horns. 

I shall now call the attention of my readers to only three or four vegetable mules, the origin 
of which I have witnessed myself. 

three sons, were hid, attended by the.r servants. For many days previous to this, two thousand men had been dispersed in parties over the 
whole country to d.sturb the game, and to drive it towards the common centre, by night and day, and constantly, yet slowly 
drawing nearer to each other. Soon after we had occupied our station on a rising ground, we began to see the deer at a vast I ance bound: 

!in S ctr r t he sounTof ^1 T "i ""^ ^^ "* ^ ^ AS *«* a PP roacbed ' ™ heard, faintly at first, then more dis- 

t nctly, the sound of guns and saw the confusion of the game, moving quick in all directions, but changing their course at every instant as 
.f uncertain where to look for safety. When the scouring parties (usually about two thousand) came first in sight, they appeared to be ser- 
rated by intervals, and to confine the game merely by their shouts and by the firing of their arms; but as they advanced upon the plain they 
formed a wall, and as they drew nearer, they strengthened this by the doubling of their ranks, compelling thus the game to pass in vast 
droves before the royal marksmen. Then began the carnage ; and for more than a quarter of an hour the firing was incessant. Some of the 
deer, who had either more discernment than the rest, or a better memory ; who were actuated by stronger fears, or, perhaps, by more exalted 
courage, absoutely refused to proceed, when they approached the ambuscade ; and, making a quick turn, notwithstanding the shouts, the 
motions, and the firing of the guards, they leaped clean over their redoubled ranks, and escaped into the woods 

" When the firing ceased the carriages all advanced towards the wood, and the company alighted to pay their compliments, and to view 
the game. We found part of it spread in two rows upon the field of battle, and the king, with his sons, surveying it. The game-keepers 
were returning loaded with such as had been mortally wounded, but had yet escaped to a considerable distance ; and? as fast as they arrived 
they deposited the spoil at the sovereign's feet. Having the curiosity to count the numbers, I found one hundred and forty-five deer, with 
one wild boar. Whilst thus engaged, I heard a murmur, and saw every one in motion. Directing my attention to the spot to which all 
were pressing, I saw at a distance a little company coming with a boar tied neck and heels together, and flung upon a pole. As they ap- 
proached; the monarch and his sons, arming themselves afresh, drew up in a line, and standing at a convenient distance, the burthen was 
deposited; the cords, one after another, were cut; and the poor crippled animal was assaying to move, when a well directed volley freed 
him from his fears. J 

" The expence of that day's sport was reckoned at three hundred thousand reals, or, in sterling, three thousand pounds. 

attended"/ T? T"' ."' T'', ™ *" deP ° Sited *" the r °° m where the kin e took his su PP er > and *« ^ ^mily ambassadors 
attended to pay their compliments. By family ambassadors are understood those of Naples, Portugal, and France, who having more free 

access and being expected to pay more minute attention, think it incumbent upon them to express their interest in every thing which gives 
him pleasure, and not only congratulate hhn upon these great occasions, but each night, whilst he is at supper, make fnquiries, and after 
wards inform their friends what the king has killed. 

"Mr. Listen, desirous of quitting the Escurial previous to the departure of the court, ordered a Cache de Colleras to be ready the day 
1Z tl 7h • P reCaU !'° n ' S taken b ? «* forei g" ">«**» to secure mules, because, when the court is in motion, no less than 

iTher purpo'se" ' ?* ^ C ° Un,ry '* "* "* "" *"**' a " d neUher h ° rSe "° r mule can be ° btai » ed fo ' "7 

, ',', £ 1^! 5tdC j ° Urney J WaS excee<Ji »gly Averted and surprised w ith the docility of the mules and the agility of their drivers I had 
travelled all the way from Barcelona to Madrid in a Coc/i e de Colleras, with seven mules, and both at that ti.nef.nd on subsequ „ la ions 
had been struck with the quickness ot understanding in the nude, and of motion in the driver ; but till this expedition I had no id« t what 
extent it might be earned The two coachmen sit upon the box, and, of the six mules, none but the two nearest have reins to guide them 
the four leaders being perfectly at hberty, and governed only by the voice. Thus harnessed, they go upon the gallop the whofe way and" 
when they come to any short turning, whether to the right or to the left, they instantly obey the worn, and move a.l' be7dL to 
' lke f a s P" n S- /s all must undergo tuition, and require frequently some correction ; should any one refuse the collar, or not keep up exact y 
withtherest, whether it be for example, Coronela or Capitana; the name pronounced with a degree of vehemence, mpid ly inThe th ^ 
first syllables and slowly in the last sufficient to awaken attention, and to secure obedience, the ears are raised, and the nJe nltantiy 
exerts her strength But should there be any failure in obedience, one of the men springs furious from the bo , quickly overtakes ^ 

hadbe^tT n 7 T I"* 1 !"? " "* ^"^ " " ** ^ "^ the b °* a S ai "' a " d «Mr nniLs the ta e he 

had been telling his companion. In th.s journey I thought I had learnt the names of all the mute, yet one, which frequently occurred 

Z !SZT d? 1 7 "°! I.'" ^ indiVldUal * bd0nged ' " 0r C ° Uld ' di5tinCt,V make ° ut the name ** * -oiuS 

,ke CagUostra, and led me to imagme that the animal was so named after the famous impostor Cagliostro, only suiting the termination to 

the sex because the mules in harness are usually females. In a subsequent journey the whole difficulty vanished, and my high estimation of 

ttemule, in point of sagacity, was confirmed The word in question, when distinctly spoken, ^ a.juella otra ; tha/is, U other also; 

ab, t th UP .T ng H " If™ t0 ^ r S ' lf thC C ° aChman h3d bee " Ca,li "S to the f <™ b >" »•"* aauella otra became appli! 

aaueia „^ H T ^r T V^ ^^ ^ ° f * l °" S ^ but if he had been cbidi "S Capitana, in that cTse, 

aquella otra acted as a stimulus to Coronela, and produced in her the most prompt obedience." 





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The Veronica Spuria {Bastard Veronica) is derived from the Veronica maritima (Sea 
Veronica) for its mother, and the Verbena officinalis (Officinal Vervein) for its father. 
It agrees with its mother in fructification, and in foliage it resembles the father. 
It is not to be raised by seeds, but may easily be produced by means of layers. 


The Delphinium Hybridum (Hybrid Larkspur) was produced in that quarter of the 
garden where the Delphinium Elatum (Bee Larkspur) and Aconitum Napellus (Common 
Monk's-hood) grew together. 

It resembles its mother most in the fructification, (the Larkspur,) and its father in its stately 

form, and appearance of its foliage. 

Owing its origin to plants so nearly allied to each other, it is easily propagated by seeds. 

The Hieracium Hybridum (Mule Hawkxoeed) was gathered in 1763 in our Alps by 


From its thick brown woolly calyx ; from the bractea, as well as in every other part of the 
fructification, it so perfectly resembles its mother the Apargia Taraxici (Alpine Apargia) that 
no tyro but would at once perceive the plant; but in the smoothness of the leaves, by its teeth, 
and whole structure, it so manifestly resembles the father, the Leontodon (Dandelion), that no 
one can hesitate whence the same was derived. 


The Tragopogon Hybridum (Hybrid Goat' s-beard) after two years appeared in the 
garden, where the Tragopogon Pratense (Common Goat' s-beard) , and Tragopogon Porri- 
folius (Purple Goat' s-beard) grew together. 

Last year, as the Tragopogon Pratensis (Common Goat' s-beard) was in flower, I 
castrated the flowers in bloom, and sprinkled their widowed pistilla with the farina obtained 
from the Tragopogon Porrifolius (Purple Goat' s-beard) and I obtained seeds, that being sown 
produced, in 1759, the Tragopogon Hybridum (Bastard Goat' s-beard), as before described, 
the seeds of which I now send. 


He who has once seen the Achyranthus Aspera (Rough Achyranthus), its spike, the 
parts of the flower, its peculiarly formed nectary, and fructiferous rcflexed calyxes, would readily 
believe, that no one could be mistaken in naming the same the Achyranthus Indica 
(Indian Achyranthus) ; but seeing its broad obtuse, undulated foliage, before flowering, the 
same person would as positively have pronounced the same to be the Xanthium Stru- 
ma r i u m (Small Burdock) . 

q I could 


I could name, unless I had chosen to adopt brevity, a multitude of other hybrid plants.* 
It is more than probable, that Nature at first created but a few species, and by the inter- 
mixture of these arose the extensive genera, or families of plants, and even by the union of 
nearly allied genera, other kinds were produced : for Nature proceeds " from simple to more 

The variety of plants arises, I think, chiefly from sexual intercourse : for, unless this were 
the case, when removed into different quarters, and changed in their soil, the variety of the 
Species would return to their original appearance ; but nothing of this sort takes place, as is daily 
seen in our most esteemed varieties of culinary plants. 

* Koelreuter, who for thirty years made experiments upon plants, performed what he calls " a complete metamorphosis of one natural 
species of plants into another;*' which shews, that in seeds as well as in buds, the embryon proceeds from the male parent, though the form 
of the subsequent mature plant is in part dependent on the female. 

M. Koelreuter impregnated a stigma of the'NicoTiANA Rustica (Common English Tobacco) with the farina of the Nicotiana Panicu- 
lata (Panicled Tobacco), and obtained prolific seeds from it. 

With the plants, which sprung from these seeds, he repeated the experiment, impregnating their pistilla with the farina of the Nicoti- 
ana Paniculata. 

As the mixed plants, which he thus produced, were prolific, he continued to impregnate them for many generations with the farina of the 
Nicotiana Paniculata, and they became more and more like the male parent, till he at length obtained six plants in every respect per- 
fectly similar to the Nicotiana Paniculata, and in no respect resembling their female parent the Nicotiana Rustica. 

This ingenious experimentalist took the farina of the Digitalis purfurea (Purple Foxglove), and impregnated the pistillum of the 
Digitalis lutea (Small Yellow Foxglove), and he obtained an hybrid, which, instead of being either purple or yellow, was striped, and 
proved perennial, although its father is a biennial plant. Fide Memoir in the Transactions of the Academy of Petersburgh, for the 

year 1782. 

The Mule Plants which have been ascertained are extremely numerous. 

Mother, Arctotis tristis 

Father, Calendula pluvialis. . 
M. Asclepias Vincetoxicum . 
F. Cynanchum Acutum 

M. Primula Integrifolia 

F. Cortusa Mathioli 


M. Papaver Rhaeas 

F. Chelidonium Corniculatum. . . 

M. Dracocephalum Thymiflorum . 

F. Nepeta Sibirica 

M. Brassica Eruca . . 

F. Sinapis Alba 

M. Actaea Spicata 

F. Rhus Toxicodendron 



M. Trifolium Repens 

F. Trifolium Pratense 

M. Rhus Toxicodendron 

F. Rhus Copallium 

M. Tussilago Petasites 

F. Tussilago Alba 

M. Urtica Pilulifera 

F Urtica Dioica 

M. Thalictrum Aquilegifolium. 

F. Thalictrum Minus 

M. Alchimilla Alpina , 

F. Alchimilla Vulgaris 

M. Veronica Spicata 

F. Veronica Officinalis 

M. Mentha Spicata 

F. Mentha Aquatica 

M. Menyanthes Trifoliata. 
F. Nymphaea Lutea 


Bastard, Arctotis Calendula. 

B. Asclepias Nigra. 

B. Primula Cortusoides. 

B. Chelidonium Hybridum. 

B. Dracocephalum Nutans, 

B. Brassica Vesicaria. 

B. Actcea Spicata Alia. 

B. Trifolium Hybridum. 

B. Rhus Fornix. 

B. Tussilago Hylrida. 

B. Urtica Balearica. 

B. Thalictrum Contortum. 

B. Alchimilla Hylrida. 

B. Veronica Hybrida. 

B. Mentha Cr'ispa. 

B. Menyanthes Nymphteides. 

Mother, Poterium Sanguisorba. 
Father, Agrimonia Eupatoria . . 

M. Saponaria Officinalis 

F. Gentiana Aliqua 

F. Aquilegia Vulgaris 

M. Fumaria Sempervirens . 

F. Blitum Capitatum 

M. Chenopodium Rubrum 

M. Cochlearia Officinalis 

F. Brassica Orientalis , 

M. Arundo Epigejos 

F. Elymus Arenarius 

M. Helianthus Annuus 

F. Helianthus Tuberosus 

M. Cyanus Orientalis 

F. Centaurea Aliqua 

M. Carduus Oleraceus 

F. Carduus Serratuloides 

M. Dipsacus Fullonum 

F. Dipsacus Pilsous 

M. Pyrola Rotundifolia 

F. Pyrola Secunda 

M. Thalictrum Minus 

F. Thalictrum Flavum 

M. Iris Graminea 

F. Iris Sibirica 

M. Carduus Crispus 

F. Carduus Nutans 

M. Dryas Octopetala 

F. Geum Aliquod 

M. Urtica 

F. Parietaria 

> Bastard, Poterium Hybridum. 

> B. Saponaria Hylrida. 

V B. Aquilegia Canadensis. 

> B. Blitum Virgaium. 

> B. Cochlearia Glastifolia. 

> B. Arundo Arenaria. 

{• B. Helianthus Multiflorus. 

> B. Centaurea Moschata. 

> B. Carduus Tataricus. 

> B. Dipsacus Laciniatus. 
[ B. Pyrola Minor. 

t B. Thalictrum Angus tifolium. 
i B. Iris Spuria. 

> B. Carduus Acanthoides. 
' > B. Dryas Pentapetala. 

' [ Urtica Ahenata. 

One of the most extraordinary hybrids, unless it can be better referred to some of those very remarkable sportings of Nature, is seen in 

the Peloria. 

This hybrid is so named from the Greek word vrtkopcc, wonder, or astonishment, for when first presented to Linnaeus by one of his 
students in botany, he was greatly surprised to see an Antirrhinum Linaria (Common Toad-flax) in the shape of its leaves, its manner 
of growth, in its peculiar smell, but its flowers, instead of being personate, with one spur-like nectary, and four unequal stamina, had five 
equal stamina, five spur-like nectaries, a corolla formed like an inverted funnel, with the neck of it revolute, more nearly, therefore, resem- 
bling Erica (Heath) in its fructification, but yet differing from this as to the number of stamina. 

Being a mule from distinct genera, it cannot be propagated by seeds, but only by cuttings. 

The Quadrangular Passion-flower appears to us to be an offspring betwixt the Winged and the Common Blue Passion, hence it most 
resembles its father the Winged Passion-flower in its foliage, but its mother the blue in its flower. Vide our Picturesque Botanical Plates of 
the several Passion-flowers, and description. 

Vide also our Notes to the description of the Carnation, where a Mule Pink is in one of the notes particularly mentioned. 



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"Ha- 3 order remdtwh diiuled into t'n; obtuse Segments . 


Henderson del . 

of the Corolla tubular 
e Stamina . with their jlnihers , all equal 
inserted into the base oi the Corolla 


Tin- I alya cimsi.'-fina or'Ftre Segment? . 


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. Here then is a new field open for botanists, and a number of new varieties may be 
raised by artificial impregnation A and if what I have written meets with your approba- 

f A new cabbage is described in the Bath Agriculture, Vol. I. Art. 4. which is said to fatten a beast six weeks sooner than turneps. 
It is there said, " that the sort of cabbage principally raised, is the tallow-loaf, or drum-headed cabbage; but it being too tender to bear 
sharp frost, I planted some of this sort and the common purple-cabbage used for pickling, (it being the hardiest I am acquainted with) 
alternately; and when the seed-pods were perfectly formed, I cut down the purple, and left the other for seed. This had the desired effect, 
and produced a mixt stock of a deep green colour with purple veins, retaining the size of the drum head, and acquiring the hardiness of 

the purple" 

In another curious paper of the Bath Society, Vol. V. p. 38. Mr. Wimpey relates, that he planted a field with garden-beans in rows 
about three feet asunder in the following order, mazagan, white-blossom, long-podded, Sandwich-toker, and Windsor-beans. The maza- 
gan and white-blossom were thrashed first, when to his great surprise he found many new species of beans; those from the mazagan were 
mottled black and white; the white blossoms were brown and yellow instead of their natural black; and they were both much larger 

than usual. . , 

Mr. Knight has given a curious experiment of his impregnating the stigmas of the pea-blossoms of one variety with the farina of another. 
He says, Vide his Treatise on the Apple and Pear, p. 42, « Blossoms of a small white garden-pea, in which the males had previously been de- 
stroyed, were impregnated with the farina of a large clay-coloured kind with purple blossoms. The produce of the seeds thus obtained were 
of a dark grey colour, but these having no fixed habits, were soon changed by cultivation into a numerous variety of very large and extremely 
luxuriant white ones; which were not only much larger and more productive than the original white ones, but the number of seeds m each 
pod was increased from seven or eight, to eight or nine, and not unfrequently to ten. The newly made grey kinds I found were easily made 
white again by impregnating their blossoms with the farina of another white kind. In this experiment the seeds, which grew towards the 
point of the pod, and were by position first exposed to the action of the male, would sometimes produce seeds like it in colour, whilst those 

at the other end would follow the female. 

« In other instances the whole produce of the pod would take the colour of one or other of the parents; and I had once an instance in 
which two peas at one end of a pod produced white seeds like the male, two at the other end grey ones like the female, and the central seeds 
took the intermediate shade, a clay colour. Something very similar appears to take place in animals, which produce many young ones at a 
birth, when the male and female are of opposite colours. From some very imperfect experiments I have made, I am led to suspect that con- 
siderable advantages would be found to arise from the use of new or regenerated varieties of wheat, and these are easily obtained, as this plant 
readily sports in varieties, whenever different kinds are sown together." 

This practice of the very ingenious Mr. Knight is not, however, a new one, for it was recommended by Bradlet as tar back. 

as 1/36. . , . , .-, 

'■ By this knowledge," says Bradley, « we may perhaps alter the property and taste of any fruit, by impregnating the one with the 
farina of another of the same class: as, for example, a Codlin with a Pearmain, which will occasion the Codlin so impregnated to last a 
longer time than usual, and be of a sharper taste; or if the winter fruits should be fecundated with the dust of the summer kinds, they will 
decay before their usual time: and it is from this accidental coupling of the farina of one with the other, that in an orchard where there is 
variety of apples, even the fruit gathered from the same tree differ in their flavour and times of ripening: and moreover, the seeds of those 
apples so generated, being changed by that means from their natural qualities, will produce different kinds of frmts. if they are sown. 

"It is from this accidental coupling, that proceeds the numberless varieties of fruits and flowers which are raised every day from seed. 
The yellow and purple Auriculas, which were the first we had in Kngland, couphng with one another, produced seed gave us other 
varieties; which again mixing their qualities in like manner, has afforded us, by little and little, the numberless variations which we see at 
this day in every curious flower-garden ; for I have saved the seeds of near a hundred plain Auricula*, whose flowers were of one colour and 
stood remote from others, and that seed I remember to have produced no variety: but on the other hand, where I have saved the seed of such 
plain Auriculas as have stood together, and were differing in their colours, that seed has furnished me with great varieties different from the 
mother plants. I believe I need not explain how the male dust of plants may be conveyed by air from the one to another, by which this gene- 
ration and production of new plants is brought about ; but I shall hint by the bye, to such as plant orchards for cyder, that they ought o 
plant only one sort of apple in those orchards; and that such plantations be likewise remote from other kinds of apples whose/ar,™ would 
else certainly spoil the cyder-fruit, by ripening some sooner, and others later, which would occasion almost a continual ferment in the liquor. 

and never permit it to settle or grow fine. . - '' 

« Moreover a curious person may, by this knowledge, produce such rare kinds of plants, as have not yet been heard of, by making 
choice of two plants for his purpose, as near alke in their parts, but chiefly in their flowers or seed-vessels : for example, the Carnation and 
Sweet William are in some respects alike; the farina of the one will impregnate the other, and the seed so enlivened w.ll produce a plant 
differing from either, as may now be seen in the garden of Mr. Thomas Fairchild of Hoxton, a plant neither Sweet William nor C-rnaUon, 
but resembling both equally, which was raised from the seed of a Carnation that had been impregnated by the. farina of the Sweet William 
These couplings are not unlike that of the mare with the ass, which produces the mule ; and in regard to generation, are also the same with 
mules if of different kinds, not being able to multiply their species, no more than other monsters generated in the same manner. 

«' We may learn from hence, that the fruit of any tree may be adulterated as well by the farina of one of the same sort, which perhaps 
may be sickly, and of a dwarf kind, as by the dust of some other kind near akin to it, and worse than itself. Now. as such couplings may 
be very frequent in common woods, so would I recommend the choice of seed to be made only from such plants or timber-trees as excel in 
greatness or other good qualities, and are far distant from others of meaner sorts, which might degenerate their seeds, and cross our expec- 
tations when they come to grow up; and this is as necessary to be observed among vegetables, to maintain their good qualities in the young 
slants they are to produce, as it is in the breeding of game-cocks, spaniels, or running-horses." 

There is an apple described in Bradley's work, which is said to have one side of it a sweet fruit, which boils soft, and the other side a 
sour fruit which boils hard. This Mr. Bradley so long ago as the year 1 72 1 ingeniously ascribes to the farina of one of these apples impreg- 
nating the other ■ which would seem the more probable, if we consider, that each division of an apple is a separate womb, and may therefore 
have a separate impregnation, like puppies of different kinds in one litter. The same is said to have occurred in oranges and lemons, and grapes 

of different colours. -'...-«. . , ,, „ . 

I have seen myself a curious instance of a Nectarine Tree produce its fruit half Nectarine half Peach. 

J r DUHAMF,!. 


tion, I shall consecrate the remainder of my days to making these experiments, so much re- 

commended from their agreeable results. 

Duhamel has also greatly extended our knowledge on this curious and interesting subject. 

" On sait que la plupart des fruits que les Jardiniers appellent nouveaux, ne paroissent etre que des composes de fruits plus anciens. Le 
Colmar, par exemple, qui passe chez les Jardiniers pour etre venu d'un pepin de bon-chretien, paroit effectivement etre compose du bon-chre- 
tien et de la bergamotte d'automne. 

" Je suis persuade que si Ton goutoit avec une grande attention les fruits d'especcs nouvelles, on trouveroit plusieurs exemples de pareils 
metifs: j'avoue neanmoins qu'il se trouve des fruits d'un gout et d'une forme teliement extraordinaire, qu'il seroit difficile d'en assigner 
l'ongine; mais ces exemples rares ne sont pas capables de detruire ma conjecture, puisque ces bizarreries peuvent etre occasionnees 
par un melange des deux seves ; d'autant plus que dans les animaux, entre les chiens par exemple, la meme incertitude arrive fre- 

" Le contraire de cette observation se presente dans certains fruits, ou les especes sont assez distinctes pour qu'on puisse manger un 
quartier d'un fruit s^parement de celui avec lequel il est joint lors de la fecondation. Tel est, par exemple, dans les oranges, l'espece que Ton 
nomme improprement rnonstre, qui sur le meme arbre produit des bigarades, des citrons, et des balotins separes, ou meme rassembles par 
quartiers dans le meme fruit : telle est aussi cette espece de raisin qui produit sur un meme cep des grappes rouges et des grappes blanches, 
et sur une meme grappe des grains rouges et des grains blancs; ou d'autres, dont les grains sont par moitie, ou meme par quartiers rouges 
et blancs. Je crois pouvoir attribuer ces variete's au melange des poussieres des examines. II arrive tres-frequemment que dans la meme 
portee, une chienne met bas des petits dont les uns tiennent entierement de leur mere, les autres du pere, et d'autres tiennent de tous les deux; 
ou teliement confondues, qu'aucune de leurs parties ne ressemble exactement aux memes parties ni du pere ni du la mere, ni d'une facon assez 
distincte pour qu'une partie de leur corps ressemble au pere, et l'autre & la mere : ce que je puis assurer, c'est que j'ai tente sans succes tous les 
moyens que les Auteurs proposent comme propres a operer ces bizarreries de la nature. 

" Je pense done qu'on peut avoir recourse a la meme conjecture, pour rendre raison des varietes infinies que fournissent certains genres 
de plantes ; puisqu'elles sont d'autant plus frequentes, que les differentes especes d'un meme genre se trouvent rassemblees en plus grand 
nombre : au lieu que les plantes d'un meme genre qui croissent a la campagne, etant en quelque facon isolees, ne donnent aucune variete. Je 
vais en rapporter des exemples. 

'** Personne n'ignore que tous les Coquelicots qui croissent naturellement dans les campagnes, portent des fleurs rouges; que les Prime- 
veres des pres ont des fleurs couleur de citron ; et que ces memes plantes transplanted dans nos jardins nous fournissent une quantite prodi- 
gieuse de varietes. D'ou peut venir cette difference? Je l'attribue a cette fecondation d'une plante par une autre; et je vais rapporter une 
experience qui pourra convaincre que cette cause existe reellement dans la nature. 

" Je suppose qu'on leve dans un pre une talle de ces Prime-veres, qui ne portent constamment que des fleurs couleur de citron ; qu'on 
divise cette talle en deux, qu'une moitie' soit plantee dans un lieu e'logne de toute autre espece de Prime-veres, et l'autre dans un jardin, au 
milieu d'une plate-bande ou l'on aura eleve une grande suite de Primeveres de toutes couleurs : il est certain que ces deux talles produiront, 
comme dans les pres, des fleurs couleur de citron ; mais si l'on ramasse ensuite les graines que fourniront ces deux talles, et qu'on les seme 
separement; on remarquera 1°. Que les pieds qui viendront des semences qui auront et^ produites par le pied qui e'toit reste isold, ne don- 
neront que des fleurs jaunes pareilles a celles des pres, parce que ces graines n'auront pu etre feconde'es que par elles-memes ; au lieu que les 
pieds qui viendront de la talle qu'on aura elevee dans la plate-bande, produiront quelques varietes ; par la raison que quelques semences auront 
pu etre fecondees par d'autres pieds voisins. Je dis qu'on n'aura que quelques varices, parce que la plupart des embryons auront etd fecondes 
par les etamines de la plante meme; et que d'ailleurs plusieurs qui auront ete fecondes par les pieds voisins, conserveront neanmoins une dis- 
position a tenir de la nature du pied qui les aura produits. 

Je crois qu'on peut attribuer a une pareille cause, le succes qu'ont eu quelques Fleuristes qui se sont procure par le moyen des semences 
de belles varietes ; puisque rien n'est plus propre a les occasionner que le soin particulier que prennent certains curieux de meler les especes 
dans leurs planches de Tulippes, d'Oreilles d'ours, de Semi-doubles, &c. Leur intention est, k la verite, de frapper la vue par une diversite et 
un email qui est toujours plus agreable qu'une uniformite dans les couleurs ; mais ils se procurent, sans le savoir, un avantage qu'ils ont souvent 
attribue a differentes infusions dans lesquelles ils avoient mis tremper leurs graines, a quelques couleurs qu'ils meloient dans la terre de leur 
jardin, a des objets differemment colores qu'ils presentoient a leurs plantes, ou enfin, a une faveur singuliere du hazard qu'ils se croyoient 
personnelle. J'ai essaye sans succes ces infusions et ces melanges de couleurs, et j'ai cru qu'il n'etoit pas besoin d'experiences pour detruire les 
deux autres moyens. 

" Les Observateurs attentifs peuvent trouver dans les potagers beaucoup d'exemples des variete's dont nous venons de parler, et cesser 
d'attribuer a la nature de leur terrein, ces changements qu'ils experiment en disant, que leurs plantes degenerent. J'en vais rapporter un ex- 
emple qui est sans doute bien frappant. 

" Nous cultivons dans nos potagers, la Rave-corail, qui est cette rave rouge qu'on eleve aux environs de Paris : nous cultivons aussi une 
rave blanche et moins delicate, qu'on nomme Raifort a Orleans ; enfin, des Radix blancs et des Radix gris. Quand nous semons des graines 
de ces plantes que nous tirons des pays ou elles sont communement cultivees, nous recueillons ces racines tres-parfaites chacune dans leur 
espece; mais comme nous avons souvent remarque que les semences que nous recueillons dans nos potagers nous donnoient des metifs qui 
tenoient plus ou moins de ces differentes racines, nous avons pris le parti de planter fort eloignes les uns des autres, les pieds que nous destinons 
a nous fournir de la graine ; au moyen de quoi nos especes se conservent plus constamment les memes : cette observation que nous avons pare- 
iliement faite sur les Garottes pales, jaunes et rouges, confirme bien fortement ce que nous avons dit qui peut resulter du melange des pous- 

" Apres cela, il est tres-facile de concevoir quelle prodigieuse multitude de varietes doit naitre de ces differents melanges : en effet lorsque 
la poussiere des etamines d'une Oreille-d'ours rouge aura feconde une Oreille-d'ours blanche, la graine qui en viendra doit necessaire- 
ment produire des pieds dont les petales seront non-seulement rouges ou blancs, ou panaches de rouge et de blanc, mais encore dont les em- 
bryons et les poussieres des etamines participeront de l'un et de l'autre pied ; ensorte qu'une de ces plantes n'a plus besoin, pour etra panachee, 
d'etre dans la suite feconde'e par une autre, puisqu'elle se trouvera possdder non-seulement la disposition des parties propres a produire le rouge 
et le blanc, mais encore celle d'operer differents melanges de ces deux couleurs, lesquelles combiners ensemble pourront faire differentes coupes 
de nuances fort agreables a la vue. 

" Je 

I shall not tire your patience any longer, having, I hope, demonstrated the Sexes of Plants* 
by every kind of argument, even by that of Hybrid Plants, which I hold to be the most con- 

« Je pourrois faire Implication de ce que je viens de dire au jaune, au bleu, au rouge et au verd ; mais je crois en avoir assez dit pour faire 
entendre que la multitude des varietes est aussi etendue que peuvent 1'ctre les combinaisons qui resultent de ces differents melanges ; et nen 
n'est plus conforme a ce que l'on peut observer dans la multiplication des animaux. J'ai eu chez moi des paons bleus, qui, a chaque couvee, 
donnoient des paons blancs et des paons bleus, parce que cette race avoit ete produite par un paon blanc et une paone bleue. J am vu chez 
M le Marquis de Gouvernet, un paon dune beaute admirable, dont le plumage dtoit en partie blanc, et en partie bleu. Enfin, comme je I ai 
deja dit, deux chiens de differente espece produiront des metifs : ces metifs en produiront dautres; et ces divers melanges occasionneront par 
la suite une prodigieuse quantite de varietes." 

* This question on the Sexes of Plants, so honourably proposed by the Imperial Academy, was destined to end this controversy, and 
much to the honour of that great Nation, Sigesbeck, who had furiously written against the Sexual System, and was Professor of Botany at 
Petersburgh, not being able to reply, was rejected from among the Members of the Imperial Academy, and afterwards humbly solicited 
Linmeus to become a superintendant, or head gardener, at Upsal. Linna=us, who never wished to triumph over a fallen enemy, named a plant 

Sigesbeckia, in honour of this fallen Professor. 






%&bi/ awi/ <?, 

r his Lapland Dress. 

•rtcn Sciilp* B 


_T i r'd by the charms of Nature's reign, 
View the bold sage advent'rous stray: 

Rude storms around him rage in vain, 
And torrents cross his dang'rous way. 

Alone beside the roaring main 

'Mid shelving rocks he loves to roam, 

Where craggy cliffs, and caverns wide, 
Re-bellow to the whitening foam. 

Nor flies the fowl, nor mid the deeps 
Swim in bright maze the silver brood, 

Nor springs the plant, nor insect creeps, 
That can his piercing glance elude. 

New scenes his raptur'd sight surveys 

Amid Lapponia's peaceful soil; 
And while with ardent zeal he strays, 

Fair science crowns his pleasing toil. 

Through many a forest dark and drear, 
O'er many a desert's trackless side, 

With fearless foot he ranges round 

With Heaven and Nature for his guide. 

Now to yon mountain's airy height 

With look elate behold him rise, 
And view with still increas'd delight 

A midnight sun illume the skies. 

The simple swain with wond'ring eye 
Beholds him spring with eager bound ; 

Chase with fleet steps the noxious fly, 
Or pore upon the moss-clad ground. 

Now down Lulea's haunted stream 
His vent'rous bark pursues its way, 

While round the waving meteors gleam, 
And cataracts urge their dashing spray. 

Hail Nature's boast! triumphant sage! 

Whom distant cent'ries shall admire ; 
Whose name, rever'd through ev'ry age, 

Shall never but with time expire ! 



LinnjEUS was ushered into the world in the month of May, 1707, and, as this great Naturalist 
observes in his Diary, u his parents received their first-born with joy, and devoted the greatest 
attention to impressing on his mind the love of virtue, both by precept and example. The 
same thing that is said of a poet, • Nascitur non fit, 9 may be, without impropriety, applied to 
the subject of this memoir. From the very time that he first left his cradle, he almost lived in 
his father's garden, which was planted with some of the rarer shrubs and flowers ; and thus were 
kindled, before he had well left his mother's arms, those sparks, which afterwards produced 
such a blaze/' As he advanced in youth, it is mentioned in the Diary, " that he never ceased 
harassing his father with questions about the names, qualities, and nature of every plant he saw, 
and often used to enquire more than even his father, who was an expert botanist, was able to 
answer/' " Whilst at school," the Diary continues, m he employed his play hours hunting after 
plants," hence he was called w The Little Botanist/' He had made an Herbarium u at this 
early period," and " his plants were classed after the system of Tournefort/' From school he 
went to u the university of Lund." Thence he removed to the famous university of €€ Upsal." 
Here an accident brought him early into notice. " In the autumn of the year 1729, 
LinnjEUS was examining very intensely some plants in the Academic Garden, when Celsus, a 
venerable Divine, happened to have repaired thither for the same purpose. They fell into con- 
versation, and Celsus was so struck with admiration at the vast knowledge of plants discovered 
by LiNNiEUs, that he requested him to bring his Herbarium along with him, which was even then 
very rich, and live with him free of every expense." LiNNiEUs frankly observes in his Diary, 
cc that in the library of Celsus he first saw a review in the Leipsic Commentaries of Vaillant's 
€ Discourse on the Structure of Flowers,' which strongly inculcates the Sexes of Plants* and 
that this induced him to be more attentive to the Stamina and Pistilla in flowers, and that after 
minute and diligent examination, he found them to vary even as much as the Petals themselves ; 
upon which last circumstance the famous system of Tournefort is founded." The result of this 
extended enquiry Linnaeus committed to writing, and Celsus was so pleased with this manu- 
script treatise on the Sexes of Plants, that he sent it to Rudbec, the Professor of Botany at 
Upsal, who expressed much approbation, and in consequence desired Linnaeus to be sent to him. 
The result of their meeting was the appointment of Linnaeus as lecturer in the room of Rudbec, 
who was now too far advanced in years to continue lecturing. LiNNiEUs, therefore, gave his 
first public lecture in that university in the spring of 1730, and although only twenty -three years 
of age, was received by the pupils with every flattering mark of approbation ; and Rudbec 
appointed him also tutor to his sons, and he enjoyed, in the house of the aged professor, every 

* The discovery of the Sexes of Plants is often arrogated by the French to Vaillant, but justly belongs to our own countryman, Sir 
Thomas Millington. Vide a note to our translation of Linnaeus's " Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants," where the time and manner of 
this discovery is given. 

opportunity of further improvement. Rudbec had formerly travelled over Lapland in the year 
1679, at the command of Charles XL but his journal was destroyed by the great fire at Upsal 
in 1702; but the ancient professor, with the garrulity of old age, would often discourse with him 
of his " young encounters," what he had seen, the new plants he had discovered, and he 
kindled up an ardent desire in the youthful mind of Linnjlus to visit those regions. Provi- 
dence appears always to have interfered for his advancement. Gustavus Adolphus, the 
reigning monarch, had directed the Royal Academy of Sweden to appoint some person to explore 
the natural productions of the Arctic Regions. Every eye was on this occasion naturally turned 
towards Linnaeus, and, notwithstanding the sacrifice, even Rudbec wished to see his former 
labours revive by those of his successor. Linnaeus had even at this period planned out his 
Sexual System, but no body of plants had been arranged under it, which was another great 
stimulus to the active enterprizing mind of Linnaeus to accept the lure of ambition held out by 
the Royal Academy. Accoutred as he appears in our painting, he visited the whole of Lapland 
in the year 1732. 

Solus Hyperboreas glacies, Tanaimque nivalem, 
Arvaque Rhipseis nunquam viduata pruinis 


Virg. Georg. 

This gave origin to his first immortal work, the " Flora Lapponica," where Linmlus relin- 
quished all former systems, and arranged the Northern Plants he had collected according to 
their Sexes, which greatly excited the attention of the botanist, and the world, towards THE 


This system at first had to encounter the opposition of men of the highest literary eminence 
in every country. In Russia it met with a most violent and bigotted opposition from Sigesbeck; 
in Germany, the envious resentment of Heister ; in France, the ridicule of Buffon; m Swit- 
zerland, the enlightened, but still prejudiced, rejection of Haller ; \n Italy, the decided and 
laborious opposition of Pontedera; and in England, the sarcastic and futile objections of 
Alston; whilst at home it was much opposed from the general envy of merit. But it soon 
triumphed over every obstacle, and notwithstanding the celebrated works of a Tournefort 
and a Jussieu, it is, even at this day, received as the predominant system in France, a country 
justly celebrated for the number of its learned men, and the general thirst after real knowledge, 
and great encouragement to science, and men of letters, but suspected of being extremely 
national; whilst in Russia, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and England, although there m fifty- 
two different systems of Botany, and we can boast of a Ray, yet the Sexual one is the only 
System that is universally adopted. 

* The reader m ust feel gratified at being informed, that « A Fie, of ^ ^ ^^^^^S^^^^ 
the late learned Dr. Punnet, of which admirable performance a new edmon has ^^fj]^^, « whieh the Diary 
improvements, by his very ingenious and no less learned nephew, D r M ^ V,ce-P ££^£ ^J£2'.d™* or regard for 
complete, from the MS. of Linn^us, may be seen, winch cannot fell to interest every per on wAo n ^ we must 

extraordinary talents, and pre-eminent virtue. For further, and ful. particulars, respecmg JJ^^^,.. M | wiU shortly be 
beg leave to refer to that excellent work, and also to <• Travels into Lapland, a translation of winch, from Usws 
published by the illustrious President of the Linnsean Society, Dr. Smith. 



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\ Inserted noi on the 
\ ( akxort nmllaUii 


/'i </\ti/n/jni 


<>r. <»f different 

I .myths 

l Stamina. 2abovr 
| />ii{\ mt miit 

I ('Staiiillia.tabow 
i ii rt mm nil \j 

or I- 1 la merits 

united »>ith eaea 


hortninjrone Boc^v 

1/ /">t/i//i///if / 

Two Bodies 

Three Bodies. 

■' ' J'l'/vfiiir/ii/iin - 




'SyngenMia / 



l n i. sexual. 

ThetHoScaei on 

Jtlie fa i nr H.uu . 
/.\fr •//<!' 

| <»■ on d tffc re n i 
v n.ui.s 


or. Mixed . 

or. Invisible. 



| blSl 



viii mrtnsti rAGnmun 

/.Won PiihluAfd hir7h.i7,i t „, .\r,uv/» i itoi 







The method of Analysis is called by logicians, that of invention, for it is the mode in 
which knowledge is acquired, and shews the progressive steps by which we advance in the 
acquisition of complex ideas. Here we are taught to compare, to reason, to determine, to adopt, 
and separate; and, finally, in this way we arrive at certain conclusions, or truth. It is a mode 
admirably calculated for the exercise and strengthening of our reasoning powers, being the same 
also as that pursued by Mathematicians. 

Thus then is the systematic study of Botany one of the best books of logic, or reasoning, in 
the world; or, as some persons might wish to degrade it, a manly sort of Puzzle, but surely 

as instructive as it is amusing! 

A person who is in the pursuit of the Class and Order of any unknown flower may be said 
to be upon a BOTANICAL JOURNEY, and the plant being his Directory, if he can read the 
botanical characters impressed on it by the pen of Nature, he will certainly, following system, 
very soon arrive at his journey's end. 

In our first start we have two * Comparisons' to make, 

I. Whether the Sexes are • visible,' or 
II. Whether the Sexes are * invisible.' 

That is, whether the naked eye can discern the Pistil/um and Stamina, or not. 

If 'the sexes are not visible,' he has already reached the object of his destination, the plant, 
whose fructification he holds in his hand, comes under Class XXIV. < CRYPTOGAMIA' of 


If, on the reverse, • the sexes were visible/.... that is, the Stamina and Pistil/a apparent to 
sight..' .he has now three Comparisons to make, which may be called the ' second stage' of his 
Journey. He has carefully to examine 

♦ Vide Plate of the Analysis of the Sexual System. 


I. Whether 

I. Whether the flowers are ' Bisexual/ 
II. Whether the flowers are * Unisexual/ or 
III. Whether the flowers are c Mixed/ 
By c Bisexual' plants are underftood such, whose flowers have their Stamina and Pistilla (the 
male and female parts of Plants) inclosed within the same corolla. 

By c Unisexual/ such as produce flowers with the Stamina and Pistilla placed in different 


Lastly, by c Mixed/ is understood a mixture of the two kinds of floivers, * Bisexual/ and 

€ Unisexual/ 

Having made tho necessary examination, if the Sexes are € mixed/ he is at once arrived 
at his journey's end, his plant is of the Class XXIII. POLYGAMIA. 

If ' Unisexual/ he has one of two roads to take, 

I. The two Sexes are either c on the same plant/ or 
II. The two Sexes are * on different plants/ 

That is, Stamen-bearing flowers (male flowers) and Pistil-bearing flowers (female flowers) are 
in the former instance to be found on the same plant, produced from the same root,... and in the 
latter case, the correspondent male and female flowers, are found on different plants, produced 
on different roots. 

His plant being as the directing post, he reads the botanical inscription, and discovers his 
plant to come either under the Class XXII. ' DICECIA/ or Class XXI. * MOMECIA.' 

But if the flower was Bisexual, he has another course to take, and he has to see, 

I. Whether the ' Anthers' are ' separate/ or 

II. Whether the c Anthers' are f united/ 

If he finds five c Anthers united' round the Pistillum, he has reached the object of his 
destination, namely Class XX. < SYNGENESIA.' 

If the c Anthers' were ' separate/ he has to advance a 'fourth stage? and to see, 

I. Whether the ' Filaments' are c separate/ or 
II. Whether the € Filaments ' are € united with each other/ or, 
III. Whether the ' Filaments ' are c united with the pistillum.' 
If the Filaments arise from any part of the Pistillum, or from a pedicle (column) elevating the 
Pistillum, the plant is then of Class XIX. ' GYNANDRIA.' 

If the € Filaments are united with each other/ (these being joined together with a mem- 
brane), they are either, 

I. All of them united, s forming one body/ or, 
II. Divided into f two parcels/ making two bodies, or, 
III. Divided into c three, or more parcels/ each parcel being united. 
If united together, but forming ' three, or more parcels/ the flower falls under the Class 
XVIII. • POLYADELPHIA/...if forming < two bodies/ under Class XVII. * DIADELPHIA/ 
...and only ' one body/ Class XVI. ' MONODELPHIA/ 

But if the e Filaments' were c separate/ he has to examine, 

I. Whether these are * proportionably long/ or, 

II. Whether these are of " different lengths.' 


Of different lengths relate only to four or six stamina.. .If his flower has € six stamina/ 
and of these he finds c four long and two short, he has reached his destination, Class XV. 
1 TETR ADYNAMIA/... if • four stamina/ f two' of these * being long and • two short/ 
he discovers his plant to be of the Class XIV. • DIDYNAMIA.' 

If his flower falls under none of the former considerations, he has an easy task now assigned 
him, only count f numbers/ but if these amount to € twenty or more stamina/ he has also to 
attend to c insertion. 9 

I. Whether c inserted on the calyx or corolla, or, 
II. Whether r inserted on the receptacle/ 

If c inserted on the receptacle/ the Class is XIII. ' POLYANDRIA/...and if on the 
calyx or corolla, Class XII. « ICOSANDRIA/ 

The other comparisons are equally easy, as Class XI. ' DODECANDRIA, twelve to 
nineteen stamina/.. .Class X. • DECANDRIA, ten stamina/... Class IX. < ENNEANDRIA. 
nine stamina '....Class VIII. < OCTANDRIA, eight stamina/.. ..Class VII. < HEPTAN- 
DRIA, seven stamina.'... Class VI. < HEXANDRIA, six stamina/... Class V. < PEN- 

TANDRIA, five stamina.' Class IV. < TETRANDRIA, four stamina/.... Class III. 

< TRIANDRIA, three stamina/.... Class II. < DIANDRIA, two stamina.'.... Class I. < MO- 
NANDRIA, one stamen.' 

After this Analysis or Separation* the student should take the classes in the reverse order, 
commencing with Class I. MONANDRIA, and ending with Class XXIV. CRYPTOGA- 

* Vide our Synthesis of the Classes and Orders of the Sexual System, immediately following the Table of Analysis. 

.> ///V/. >//>//// /// ^// ////////. i / // 

///.} /),/// //nvr/ 'h>//:) ) 

Tluyrntm, Jmfii 


I. Classes derived from the Consideration of the Number of Stamens. 

Class I. Monandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. 

Class II. Diandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. 

Class III. Triandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. 

Class IV. Trtrandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Tetragynia. 

Class V. Pentandria , . |°rder I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. 

I Order V. Pentagynia. Order VI. Polygynia. 

Class VI. Hexandria f Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. Order V. 

1 Polygynia. 

Class VII. Heptandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Tetragynia. Order IV. Heptagynia. 

Class VIII. Octandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. 

Class IX. Enneandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Trigynia. Order III. Hexagynia. 

Class X. Decandria (Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

\ Order V. Decagynia. 

Class XI. Dodecandria ^OrderJ. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

I Order V. Dodecagynia. 

II. Classes derived from the Consideration of Number and Insertion. 

Class XII. Icosandria fOrder I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia 

I Order V. Polygynia. ** 

Class XIII. Polyandria f Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. Order V 

I Pentagynia. Order VI. Hexagynia. Order VII. Polygynia. 

III. Classes derived from the Consideration of Number and Proportion. 

Class XIV. Didynamia Order I. Gymnospermia. Order II. Angiospermia. 

Class XV. Tetradynamia Order I. Silicidosa. Order II. Siliquosa. 

IV. Classes derived from the Consideration of Union. 

m yvt at S° r6er J\ Tr J r ana \ rifl ' 0rder tt Pentandria. Order III. Octandria. Order IV. Enneandria 

Class XVI. Monadelphia I Order V. Decandria. Order VI. Endecandria. Order VII. Dodecandria Order VIU 

C Polyandria. 

Class XVII. Diadelphia Order I Pentandria. Order II. Hexandria. Order II. Octandria. Order IV. Decandria 

Class XVIII. Polyadelphia Order I. Pentandria. Order II. Icosandria. Order HI. Polyandria. 

ri YTY „ f 0rde ^^ | N« ll £k- Oder II. Triandria. Order III. Tetrandria. Order IV. Pentandria 

Class XIX. Gynandria ^ Order V Hexandria. Order VI. Deca,idrza. Order VII. Dodecandria. Order VHI 

v. Polyandria. 

Class XX. Syngenesia j "^ 1 ;, ^fy*^? * q ™ U$ ' 0rder IL Po/ r^™« «*ped&ai. Order III. Polygamia fmstranea 

I Order IV. Polygamia necessaria. Order V. Polygamia segregata. Order VI. iiLrcosamia. 

V. Classes derived from the Consideration of Separation. 

rioccYYT at rOrder I. Jifowwdri^ Order II. Diandria. Order III. Triandria. Order IV. Tetrandria Order V 

Class XXI. Moncbcia J ^T^P^ O???. 1 - H ™™ d ™- Order VII. ffiptendWi,. Orto^ffLSlS^" 

I Order IX. Monadelphia. Order X. Syngenesia. Order XI. Gywandr/a. «*■»■«*" 

•Order I. Monandria. Order II. Diandria. Order III. Triandria. Order IV. Tetrandria Order V 
Class XXII. Dicecia J £'?* , v "V* ^ VI X Hexandri(l - ° r <*er VII. Octandria. Order VIII. Enneandria 

I ^^ IX 'nr v t' c° rdcr X ' **«™*-to- Order XI. PofrandW*. Order mC 
C de/p/im. Order XIII. Syng-ewesza. Order XIV. Gynandria. 

Class XXIII. Polygamia Order I. Monacia. Order II. JDiacw. Order III. Tr/acia 

VI ^ C/<m derived from the Consideration of Concealment. 
Class XIV. Cryptogamia Order I. Filices. Order II. Musci. Order III. Alga. Order IV. Fungi. 


/ y 


, . / .■' /r ,,-,./- y ///r/,r/// ? 

1 1 \~- 







» LASS ' l x 


f f m; ^ 












Will ." 




.' Fl.n 

Bur null 


hi. i.l. 

* LASfl 





. \ ftSI 




XXIV ('r\/ 

Fcn*U Flm*r 




(><:> r//,/r. /sauiat \ J //.>/,'/// //r//, _/ L / .r,/, •////>• //■•<////,■ /////////. 

i Km** 



HI . Truuuirui 

\ *&\*t"fr 

"VI . Hcarandria . 

H. Hn/icandria . 

ill . /. 

TV. 2'ftnnhn,t//u,i . 




au&an/ ,iJ 

Mtbzel sculp. 

n I'ufrli.h,.! />. PrJtw niw J3*c£iiSo8. 




IrcxSASl>HIA,3BI.P0tYASl>HIA;,//v A,Ar/,/r,./„ //„ NrUBER </ 1TTOLLA , W A///W, «r GTX1A,,«^ ftyr* <M m ANURIA.*/"** m* / ^ , T _— - 

1 . 

■ . 







X . 

XI . 










(bio /Ys/t/A//// 

7V,- F6dmm . 
Tkrrt fftftk. 

Four 7Ysa//a. 

Fm /'fs/i/At. 
Stir Pisnt/a . 
Sttm /'istiMi 
EMi /'/s/t/Af. 
Skit /isa/A/ . 
Tm /}*////<* . 
Twdn AM/AA,. 
./////// /tsa/Aa . 

^CTUVN^n.^/^. XIV. DII.YXAMIA /,„,' //„ ()l(l»KKS,A//v////'v/W/, Mil ATION ,////, SKKUS. 

*-**• , Ttmbed &»&. 

I. GYMNOsrmiflA ~~~ Cevered Seeds Seeds CrdtSlded.J 

n. am.iosit.kmia . — 1 — ' . , . 

SECTION Til. '///.; xv. tf.ti<ai»yxAmia./^/A()i<i»i:hs. A ,^ ^diffkkknck ////A shut../ //. s..», 

CVmrs. /i*/ a St/A/r 'a /m>afA /}■*/ . 

I. SlLlClLOSA - /},,/„ S,A,///,f,/ A/H/ A <></ ./ 

" j'^V^M,,^ A,^-V^S, !( -n,/,W/, «nVXAM..UA '. *»„ *» ORDERS **»><* * -WMBER ^ NTAMIXA^. 

SECTION IV. JJ I ■IIBIPI— !■■!■■ ■_*M ■■■•■■■■ WWTiW 11 "H,. A' ""/■' ™ F 

rt"**. /•'/,-, St.imi/ui 

I . PEBTANDRlA. __^ ,/,„„„,„ 

/;„//// Stamina .(..,. .-// IV KM.K.I \XI»IU\.V [COSASDRIA to 

An///// or //ion Stamina. *u mso/io./ on ///, Aioco/>ta<Ao 
VI. Volyaxdkia. • •' 





I '( >l A < . A M I A __QT A LIS 




fl,/,/i FLOK ET /un//if/ 

BfO i i M imam Calyx. 

/'/\//Y ///>nr/s /// ///< 

_ J 





.«•//// BisBxiAi. idken 

I'M. Si: XI \\L 

I /'/.</// ///>nr/s 
/{,///. llUtFECT 
/,fSf, , im.rr,. ., 
Tin /',,/,/ r /o<//,r// {t /\ /•/</// : /7<„<r< /// /A, 
Seed I /'<///. I MI'EHFKC-T 

__k4 Floret km //></ 



///V.///V// /// //" 

/t/x/.,MAVVMVvcr r/o/r/s in tA< A'./y. perfect 




It >l.Y»i Ul i \ SrPERFLrA . 




t^^%E^T__iS__. S^ST-TSfe^s ____rw--i====^ ____.__#_«_--:*-»- ^* ^-^ 

/'n/rrs. —Onr .St<m/>/t 

i WMJBUmu ^^ ^ j.^ Sffmi „ l(l /A IK<r ( T t ,/iis jm&dtrMut f A, />n,r< <///,<, (tmrnt 1mm k> 

* ' _™ ' ■ ' X " Smmma ansuw //\>m fAr Its///A//// 

m. (.w\M)iiv __ — —— — — • 

. I - hwir wmwm . 

HOT*. /;- UW-ft— r-HA CESSES ^^f;.^^^, w ^SJTW* ^fHIMf - Hcrrwv.W Ikvtm A.. iO-t«l 

KA1ALMSTEM,A/WV'///<^*^' W -/ c trTIft , xn, //^_, /_*_ «m.l-»I.Y«AlllA.«> A/iv OHUEHS. 

thmkd /'/ o//r REFORlfED SEXTAI. ! 

I . 
H ■ 

i . 

SECTION \7II. timsm (/<//< xxm . polyoamia. »r tow OMH . 

Mowo.' i a 
DM. ( is 



HUM i 

_LOA . 


^^ f/ ( /A /A////// . 
ft, , ii</A/A////>//s . 
r//n; ////AiA/f/o/ts 

f orris . 


/'//// <///s<\ . 

;^i«vAW»W A. ///»«nr«* .(q^iOw- 






I)i<iym.i . 

1 1 rwa/1* 


Trioyniu . 


IV. . 

t* r, ■ 


(A A 




Hof>t,i ; iynni . 



x „ X A. > I |, (SP.oilUI 


X. J)o<ir<<i<iynui 





GynmupcnmiA . 



*liit,iosycrmia . 

m ^ 



wi /W ; 

f ? 


/'r >l\'<id/n id fUpt f-jhui 
fOtmrnl tbnt» iMb, />:• ,>f t/„- H.n,r,ri,lc \ 


' * XK. 

f'o/y.nwii.i jhislr.i/i. g 

Iritis . <>/' «<- Air. Azmn y 


Poly>uim i,i j£ftttHjr 

(FUtrett «■£ dlUee either liauLitc -t taimlr j 

A It-ntLitf tfcret 


/', ■ / 1 ,////// at //< '-('fsari/i 

l central ThyrcU barren .<*' titc Bay. fertile ) 

l.i.m.'.itc rV.'rct fertile. 


lo/\dUl/l/,/ .<r,in : l,itil 

■-. /.,- .'nr.i/i,i .1 I'.lh-.r j 

20t Tin- Florets lion are somonltul nhKiniii',1 . 

xxm. m 

Um /h " ri " 

XXH. ,_ ._ -,_,/ / D1 <wi dufcrmt Hants , 

MotUhJunUil aj^fg ,,.,/.- rimer ^t^*r,nulr Florer 

I JZm-.r not amtpnoU ) 

.'■ .•t.smlii.i :mi/.;l 



Is where ftbwcrs 

of the luiture of 

xxm:. a- xxiv, 

occur with 
fii.rc.aiu/ H ome r * . 




. //,„/■ 

GuttU ,lol . Autiior of tin Flora l.onduunsis. 

2B.Tlu Qaftcs are alto ocGAtumdfy u.u-,1 -/..• Orders 

London . fttfiluhca 1 fiy &T Tlicrnton ocpt^'oo 

Jlu;,l sculp. 


-* >:. 


To/xhM .s-ny/. > VinantScufp. 


i ///.•// >A 

/ / / ' / 




Ilcmlirson pin.r 

l,,'ii.i,-n Puhh.thol /)<< ' i i,i,>f l>\ />' Thfirntm 

- ■', -: 

1* Stage . Two flowers surrounded by the first Envelope 

V^Staae. The first Envelope dropt . 

a. a. First Envelope, b.b. oeeorul Envelope. 

y.ititml position of 
the Pistillum 


Anther, twi/l . 


i'oro/Ja ii<t into Hirer Segments 

i. The Upper Segment. . I.e. The Two Vndrr. 


(n-rnien beneath 

FistMum £ Stmmm in their natural position 

Fart of the Nectary 
cut off 




London . Published h D r Thornton. April ufio 




A Flower. 


Petals of the Corolla. 


1 2.3 The three uprufht bro,d Petals of the Corolla 
4. A 6. The three upnoht narrow Petils of the Corolla. 
7.S. The two aided Leaves constituting theNeeUry. , 
9 The Anther inserted, on the maram of me 

of the Zemew of the Neetaiy 
10. Stigma of the PistiHum 
U.JZ.JM. leaves of the taly.r 
14. Two scales enel.>sina the Ut-nncn 
Ifi. Germett. 

Nectary , Stamen. Pisttlhax & Cdfyas. 

, I '.-.//v.. 


' I 

Henderson del 


///r ///////// f/w//fY/.fYf/ aum w 


Sutherland sculp. 

London. Published by T) r Thornton. .iprd 2.1810. 



Sender son pi/t.r. 

V/. //////////// , - ////' ///.////////' 

Wdtott sculp. 



^L £ud. 

IY opening. 

3f Stage, 
uwlla fully expanded 

\tm the Sheaths Jbc. 

Stamen TruynifieZ FUtiHum , D. 



/>'/,<, v,< shew the Stamina k riftillum 


If Dunka/ton Jk 

ZmiM TulUsha bv Jg "J'ivrnL'n .M.n 


i I 



&vac/ ' /'//// //W// // 





f ///r/'O f /////j r/_ . v//////'///. 

^> . I ti/ima. 



//////'///./ ////////.////./ ,7'/' //,////>/'- /£>// 

&J>.Oafct del. 

London ANMei it BT Thornton Deotxa.8o3. 




Edwards del. 

ZondonPublished by D r Thornton. DecTlj8o8. 

Wisnur sculp 





X.Topoft'u- .••.>/,••< ;rm.,ed »tf ^«8 f«W«f 
rAr j-rtv»w/ Pedwicles forming m VmM 

S.Ac S*f**m without Um~.m**9 inini*i«> 

firm the jp^und and d *H**f *• fruct.fnat.on 

3. F:r- 

wtett uyri.iht 
■Tosed . 

r <w of -the Leaves 
of the Inrolucrum 

4 . .»r«w<- . 
Pedtmcle pendent 
i'oroRa pcepino. 

. .77-cW .7*«"" 

Segments or iret.'i 

5 . JTwW X*mj« • 
(',wffd rqlesed 
Stametw cmeraino 

■■;, /:.>.„■. 
St.uiiens diver.nrio 

7 . /tyifr •'"'•■. 

Peduncle partly uprioht CoroOa withered 
Stamens at rial* anoles wiA the Pisttfum . 

p . ZV An Segments . / 
|fo ( ",./.>(7<i displayed 
in the MM »"V 

lO . 27w /tj <• Stamina 

d,.; r ?-»ed .Inside view 

S^ 7;/A.' «f"*C t'.'/v,'/,; . 


31 . 17i« fii'e Stanii/ia . 
Outside view tv 
X2.A St.nncn *» ** /"'«' *****«»-* ■'>*'""" 


14. Insertion of the 
frx figments vvto the Tube of&c I 

1.5 . Tlte Corolla removed to the** 
tli.- reflcccd ftymmtl or' the 
C.ilvj-.isin tfte third Staae . 

V\ . Si.ith Stoat ■ 
The Corollo .md Stamens drept . 
Teat-Ota tilt PistiBion whose O.rmeit ^ 
or Secd-vysel is considerably ^ 
enereased ! surrounded by the 
Calyj .which ,fradu.i!{. 
its refleard State 

l6.77ie Corolla and Cah\r removed tv shew 
&e coineroiitaotthc pve St.miina .as 
1 m die third Staoe 

19. The Seed, vet sel 

cut open jto shew the seeds 
surr.nmded, hv a Pericarp. 

\3 . Last Sr.i./c . 

The lulv-i- Jttfori y the 
Orrmen/or See.! 

del ■ 

/.,.„./,.«. MIM hv />' Tbrntm Jtp&tS**. 

G * m Fetid. 


J)? mtuptMcd . 

.'■ yt.mii/i.i Pistil. 

Seed - rcfsel . 

V/'/vv/. //.///>- 

Edwivds del. 

Zcndaft. FuHish<;I it l> r '<",■ tjjSot 

Warner scalp 

JJ" i>/<e*im*t 7'rom tlie center. 

J'7t>H'er oprticd t4< .r/u-tr 
tfie $ hirsute Stiwiui.i . 

Cnr ,f it.< h.iuw ,/rr.itlv m<n]nijud 
to shew the joints. 

(.,/v.r Jt AW,//,„„, 

~A Stmmen 

Seed >v.>..v/ 

( ' 


W-/ - /v/v4>/ yy. Or/; , // /////^///r' 

Edwards del. 

Zondon, 1'uhlislnd by l) r 77wrnton. lh, r u8o8. 

WiiTrn-r sculp. 

D? open to shew -the s JSerri&c Part of the ^4riUus removed. 

-^i JZerry . 

londen, Ihi&Ushed by Dri7iorntcn,I)ec r iidod '. 

. 71 ./«'/ . 


I ■)& 



. n . PubUthed by l>' 7'hertUon , June 3 

first <>>,.,/<• 

ifac8n£ Sttii/t' . 

Thirti Sttue 

Henderson id. 


Cdd mt H saUf>. 

lorulon . tkiMtked fir DrTkonebm Jan. tjfog 

//'>•// ( ) / '/r//'r/. y 

Sender son del. 

I.onJon, Puhlt.choJ hr 7K "Thornton Jbnfejjea, 

i'<i/duaU sculp. 




Qyc/ ( rr///// />//.' . 



Mitter del. 

ZmMm TuMh>htd ly DT Thornton Oct's ^oa. 



W / / / // r / / 

Edwards del. 

'/////// ■ 

Flower f/iu./rwi-;/ . 



London, hihlhsh,;! by IKThorton ./><■.' \iSoS. 

IVtinur .i-rnl/: 

I' fiiiniiflnBii ihr..- loand . 

The Cmhel . 
ti moral and TartiaL . 

Hewer nnii/nijhd . 


• J* 


Henderson. dA. 

London , Published by DC Thornton . (Kt r\-o 

Werner jadp. 



j£n outer fetal 
Front View. 


1. g.3. the three outer petals 
whieh leek ///to the three i/iner 
■petals, i/ito the longitudinal 

protuberj/iee m the l>,iek. 

jifk inner Fetal 
Front View. 

■ <. 

Mefu/.rsen pifuc. 

Jiae/c View. 

I<rndv7i, Tublished by J). r Thornton Aiy?ij.8o8. 

■ ■■<i/i. eeeHp. 

- / . rtamoi ,y ' t/«- netirel sice 

1? Stu.jc. 

Stigma <<f th<- FifttSxtm. 

n.- F.u-uui mt it <nnmv frmn * 


Bf all eovmti wiA Farm* . 





2 d t »W, 
./).'' covered n-ith .<//<•/•>//<■..• ,./' Furi, M . 

Shtdovtm ilt-l . 

' ' f ////•////// 


ZexJeK.J&Urfui y »~T1„iittn ^ -j_u^. 

SmhcrlmtuL sculp 


1 . First Staae . 
Remit dated . 

5 . Firth Stage 
fistillwt j'espuui 



/', r? ( ( ////r/Y/-< 

/Y/'/f// ( 


ootid Staoc, 
.IntJu/y f,Tfiiu) 
FiJ.niiait.'- onrlrd downw a rds. 

6 . Sixth Aem, 

Fistillum nearly the heiaht ot'tlie Stamina 
F/oneri/i Potr'oodoti . 


3. Third Sta.i, , 

Filaments tiiki/ui tluir /■osita-n . 

.\ . Fou/ih Sta/ff , 

Fila/iir-n/s end 


7. Seventh St.1.1, 

'Jltr iiufieanated f'isti/hi/n cit'itaatal 
Tlir Stamina drwyuui . 

S.ELj/ith Sia.u 

.7,7 ejxept tlii tjmiuii 
de c a y ed . 

^^ 10. Back 9Sm 

SJtcwma 1/1. & WtariewisS o.rteriew Petals of the Corolla. 

12. Tin- Anther, an d Filaments 

die tivitia . 

11 . The Gormen maiinuicd 
'[',' them the disposition efthe Seed* 

wlueh ,ire irtmned <•/; on- 

,1 • ts& 

|3 • Pistillian etdannd 
'Die Stiama ..'< heailod . 

..4. tjwitversc 
View ot"the ircrmai . 

Pti/iaale ,itid Pother del . 

London Published l<\ /)'" Thornton Mav 1.1801 . 

II. inter sonl/< 

i* oro</e. 

o'ome or' t/u- Totals oi/rli/i.f back 

Pistil fii^ tern 

3 a ,i'w- 
/Wa/s all our/e.l back 
/'/.< til seen avrio/u/st t//e ^Anthers. 

V h Sr.tge . 
Jbtmlf vt more curled 
.//'titers roUi/ia buck to dire out their luiruia 

Stuinni .v Style drvpt <■/} 
in rin, ii erect. 

5* Stage. 

.//i/Ac/s .leoayiil.i 
I'islii firing nhoyo the . //it/icrs 

(j,rrrieti a I'encarp, opening h 3 I aires 

6* Stage 

Corolla a- Stamina fallen 
ucrrneti c/iore.LuJ . O'tvle more curved. 

9* Stage 
Six Mm* of 

( '//,//£ 

'//,///"///// // v//' c 




l.emi.u J' t ,/-it,iic.i I, IK 'ITiceolcn . M, 

V' /'//a////, 


Hcndersojv ./■/. 

/.•//</. •« P,<Nuhcd by /) r ffornbm Jtmxh 6a8o5 . 

M,iZrl snjlfi 



/, PistiUiim 

A Flower 

J/////V ,/,/. 

/,W,v, /W»////W A, 0f ri„,mt,„,^f <n . ,, n f lo 

Su&trUnd JbtUp 


a Stamina,. 

^£ general Vmbcl . 

6 PutOU ■ 

(7,r? r,y> 


] y J// /r /////./ //////rr/////.j, /v ; ' /r//'r ////// * '///./// 


Wtndtr s ai del 

/.<>//,/<■//, PiiHtslifJ l<\ ly'T/ Jn/ir i.ifii,-. 

lives sculp. 


•">.'/////>/ Stoat , 
-V/( expanded flmtetete sem in fimt. 

<l Mo,),' , 
The ristilht <i,:*mw<„ thru- ,ur<m,,anmt oleu, fa ,tan 
the- CfitvUa kStmma !un -in,/ withered. 

t.Xhc First S,, (tll 
Ffower enclosed l>v the Stipule. 

4 . T7n Calyx magnified,. 


d . Back I iew of ' the c avlla . 

.">. Fn>nt /'/,■„• ffj 'l!ir (Weill , 

Aglobide i'i 'Honey m the 
center of the prtal. 


i.Tlic SetmU Stage . 

The Havers burstuni /rem between the Stipules. 


Tfchderson del 

r ///////y//y r/ ///•_ //y///r_ 

lon&rn FubUshed h> D r . Thmton MtnA i,i8e3. 

Maxell sculp. 

- '■- 

Back Turn' of Flower with its FeJuncle . Flower static £ 

Flower glohular. 


^£I7ower open to shew its 10 Stamina 

BistiBum nuionified . 
D'. maantfioJ to the i 
Two bole* (V/r/ii^j IT^Mtwious stnittiircX 
of irhuh. theStJ- 
Farina parses V 

/ of each Stamen. 

F Back View 
_. of the flower 
shewing at the hose its 
ten protuberant jVeetaries 



~dL Section of Df 

Ocret del. 

//■A////, j ■ ( ■//,//;/,////,' ,vy A/,y//£// // /W// ./, 

Lon.Lm Published iy 2>f Thornton J7ov:x.idod. 

Warner sculp 

-^ L #////,,/. 


o/'rAt- /uctiwa/ ,<t ;< . 

A',/,// /!/,// ( cUfl jo ifhiwui) 


Seedr-vefZel. Seed 



/»/.//////// ; A/// ,//,}-////, #V/ . . 

v:/// . ///y/, y/ ' v>/ 

E(bi,i/ili del. 

l™d<.„. /'a/,/,,/,,,/ fy D'/'Aonuo,, . W,„v„,v 



Flower maonipai to show 
the 12 St/tmirui . Sc i TLdiflum 

PistMum . 


r C 

Edward* del. 


Zontfon . IM&fhed by D r 'Thornton ,Dco r i.iSoS '. 



J///// /'///// , 

ICdrrnr fadp. 

Calyx opened . a SpaiJte . 

(tilyjr openzno. 

.t/wV.r tm vn d mtk JHmmu. 

r c 4 

C////// ( ;////r////w ; 

; 07 


ffm/krson dc/>. 

lenden , J^iMud ly 2? Thornton 2L^ gJ .ff og . 

W™ Dunkarton Jw: 


>/r . 



17ic Tistilhi in their 
^ ?i.s-tUlum mamitied. ^^ p0Sltum 

Origin ci' the Steunina . 

Back lien <■/" tin (,il\.e. 

JZdwardjr pi/ur. 


C ( 7 / 


J. on Jen Published by D? ' Thenxt<m , Jtfav g.iSoit . 

Wattan sculp. 





2 ... 7 PE TAT. ( r lEAK 
1 ./KAC-1N1A.CVSEGMKNT *»*«**■*. 

( >/ ' the C al-yx . ^Jermi/iiitint} in a Hook 

^ orarujc 

.1/1 an thee. 


4.77 . PlSTLLJL,rM,/T FEMALE . 

77/< stk.m.v, 
mMoA fr 
0M0M '•••>/ ,* 

1 1 'j- flu ?■<<</ . 

77/^ (JEIIMEN 

A>>. ''•-, \ l '. swnnohU.l 

\\ \ r/k' Sor.w ■ 

Mei/i,h//r j'in.r . 

Lmdon , Ful'lishtd by D* Thornton .May j 180% 

H'.irnti- sculp. 


i . Fnmt l'i>M 

:: ? 


■f\fi,r„,.i of, i v,r\-cnn',>u.\ >• .[//,//«,• . 

Henderson />///./ 

/„•«</,.„ /V/M../W ly n'TI,,.,?,,,,,,.. {„,,„.« , .te 

y.tiiv.f sra//' 


r ■/ / / / /J / f 

frf// //,//,;■ -^//, 


I Calvx. 

U . Corolla . 

Ill . tYiihiuhi 

A Stamen MJaanxfUi 

Y I'm, 

mearp . 

II. l'i,tiUum. 

n /'//,..•' ' 

l,<n.i,-r, , Pull,,),,.! ,., /» ; /■/,.,„,,,„ /; , 


//>//,/. raff ft i'in.1 

It"" Dttwhvt w . a ■////> 



C<r<>fl<i , , m J><i. 
CUft AlV. Didvnamia ., StmUWU, % l*g mt s)wrt 

''n/,r ll.lnou^pcrmtu Seed u, „ I'cmarp 


i ftqfnui 


<vp a// mrngG. 

■ /////,///.,.•,>• } //•/>//<•/.;. 

WTJhtnbm U>n sculp 

- ■ . -^ « 





The tiro ftp, *f f / lt . r«n>//« opened, 
whiih imwJi.Ttrfy tl 7T<-r ..y M/ > together. 

JTc-tliiiTSO/l ,/</ 

Z*n*m AM*** l.y Jjr I7 liVn t.<„ Ml, j.,flo 9 . 

Dwikartm sculp. 






Stem loaves, narrow. 

'TLfiaJiral leaves, roundish pinnate 

% , , 

A Petal 

6 Shuneas. SHiaue. { 

' / Y J / A /< / / 

Stbrardi del 

lenAon, /•/,/,.■,,),./ /,,■ /;'77/. ,/■/,/..„. Dec r Jn8a3. 

WO/Tld/- .<■■////> 


9 JUUmou .4 l t ,ruj ? .sfi.^i-t 


7i fi&kd hy D r 77nv llt .>n .V,/r Ufiia, 

-i Si licit 

77ie Three Stamina. tritJi the I'lshliuin in I he 


//• nderson piruv . 

1.2. S.Tetals of the Corolla 

leaf eii.--irhrm , constructed, like ,i fan . 

//'/'///'/// I' /'///V/// 

Itm /■uhli.iuJ bv 7> r J7u>r/it,m . May j.iS.y. 


hmikiirton sculp 




/7,'HV/;.- ,/,.y.,-..v,/ /// ,, ,/,/,. /'/,//.,/. 


//r //,/(/'. <(>// /■/<-/. 

Xondon. Puhlif7ved by DTTfwrntvn.DccrMJ^o^ 



>;/,- ) 


// V > / 5 

Saubersan del 


/.W. w .h<Hi,-lu,t byltmrnton .\W: lh s„, 

Jhaikarten Jtrfscuhx 

Trent i 

JfacA- View. 

Ur I Teta/s. 

l.Thc Vjrper fietml r../.\d the 
Stan i 

ftf.Ihc two side Totals 

catted tin . 

4. The; ir named the hW! Carina 

The W Staminj.vii.fl Vkdtrmoat with MOamentr noted, 1 Vpper .</.. 

The PvtjBum aaeaneed inte „ / 

egume . 

( ' /' 

Henderson pinx. 

Xanden tuiUskU fy Srihamlmt.ji BU r^So 9 

W^TtunJcarten Jun r sculp 


The Leaum&f, or Pod*, 
resemble a Bird* Foot. 


l. 2. ?>. 4. 5. (k 7. fi. $. JO. The tea Stamina. . 

' r// //////. ; ; 

/'/'f /V//////V/ C ////^e/- 



Ednords del. 

Warner sculp. 

London. Fuihsked by f)' Thornton ./>,<'. j.jSoV. 

J » 




/// Ct '#4. // < ? / Vt ' r // *€/& , 1 7 ' < / // >/ 0/ - £ W / V > 



i\i('dwaU satfp. 




Caly.i . 

GfroSa . 



Stamina, in 3 Bundle. 

|f i VJ j rk ' // " ' ''' ^ Btmdhj trf St.uiiiriii shewn 


,• • / 

.? /k^a* . 

.]////,/• ,/<•/. 

, /( ////r/'.ov//// x S/y/r/w////// ;r/' * s^/fr/v/fr// t 
■ / / / 

L'H.I.'n Published by />''/'//. vntan Bufl l8&8 

Warner .uulp. 



Corolla . 

Catyx. Df nuyn&led,. 



Miller pi/ijc 




■PistiZlum . 

fyndm PuU M fy />'rhorr,tm.Sc r t^,^,. 

Winter smb. 


PiftSbmt . 

t Stmmana . 

JSoutavt w /» isix . 

aw,v,./w,,/w h . 7) r n. v .„ t<mAI<lviu , o<) 

■Dvn&mrtitn .>-< -////> 


First Sum 

Second Statu . 

third Same. 

Fourth Stage. 


,t fatal . 

Calyx Leaf.. 
1 EoeJc, 

bJ.'n.uinj to cn-h Caly.rleaf. 

fJiii/Mtfti Ji/u ■' 

./ ('.i/Jti , 


""'■-'■ <><{v.r,or J fli 

*-*S.4.S,l%B ,h< ; llf 

Gafya /,,//,.--. 

77ir J fisti/la. 

*.Z.3.+.6,Ito f nr Beeal /,, 


Tke JuiJ/.un:- , or Nectary. 


The 6 Stamina,. 

//. ndawn pi/ur. 


Tuimvf-d* .U r 4 i^ . gj, ) 

Z-^Afcj** ^^z^m*, .1/,,,^,,,. 

■ftunkarton sad P . 



f . *f : ■ H " , 

* i 

Dot* in the lower. 

-i-n | 
• >'/.■/// Cork. 



/•:./.>,..• , 7 ' /.,, /.,,// " tooStel like ,i ..-.„, . 

LotdonMUtktd A, BT Thornton ,Jme-za$o3. 


; f 


foflft* < lT the /? (T// 

la-Si 'ii pinx. 

ftttdler sra//>. 

dffn.Fitblished h\ D* Thornton Ww #j.8o*. 



I _ 

■ ■I « 

■ ■*- ■ 

r . F -«5>S=h" ■ 





•t^J/ft/icr.'- ii/ii fr,/ 




The SeeA mtumi/'ud 

~4.Ligul*t<- Floret o/t/u n.Uur.d x, u - 




Nt inn it If /w'y/.r 1 


y» ' /- ' / / / " / ■ (' // / 

LonJtm.l-uhhsheJ by IT. lfcrMM OcZx'SSoS. 

Jt '" K.Du/dwlon sculp. 


-■■3Tr /C'-: 

C ' '////f-//r//r ///■ //r//ri r 

tultJt romoro<i to .Jiott the Flo.-ouios . 

The Flos.iiles frotooto.l h ,111 I mlrn;ih;l Culyx 

Hrixit' rs on del 


Thomson scaly 

London .Vubl,.-ho,l by T) r Thornton ..J/'n/ s.ifio.f. 



»** View vctuii^ luJnJ^Tlarets * tAeDuk.l^Ja^ 

m the JUy, „h*:h together fim a compound Slower. 

Hack View evchihixinq -the common Calyx 

JL-nderson del. 

Tul'c Liui open 

Zmdm /'////,.. >W l,y /rr/wnrton.cWj ,.W 

CaHtmA 4oitp 


* - r I 


■ir,?*vv- I 

i_ ■- V 

A .»"/•<•</ 


JJcmiiiM'ii (It/1 

M.K.irh ..■,<•,/ /..■ emknuxd lyf&url&embrmer 

tmim ft/A//../,,-,/ fa KTkmtmm JUTaoA**. 


-- -■-. 


cur - ihspeir, <r\ Med.. 

Jeed- vefWel '. 


^1 SeedS 

J'i.ffiRum . 

Front kJkuek 
View of Jtamuni 

K K 

ft St/uniiui united. ^2'rfui ■ 

i :'>\:r. 


^ ///,■ ) ///'/>/ ///'A-/ 


Jidiitjrds del 

Wknur. sculp. 

London. AMUbA />> J> r Thivyiton.Xm-UiSoy. 


■ * 

■ ; .=3 


F7<<mr.r btfire mmjm 

Rmct ,,lol.ui, ir <,/,/„■ a,i;< xiz. Q jw> m, 

Senderson <lcf . 


Jfe<& . 

£mfae. PuN^hrd M OrZhmttm >>,■<' 

U'ft/iVt .\Cltlf>_ 


J, -r* - 

r ■ 




ilowtts prote<ird h 
a menu\.mous Sluatli 

2 . This Slnath e.ipos.d . 

:> H.i.k View <v\i male rlower. 

7 . Tlie Enir JW.iL- of-Ae male flower /tpmti* 

3 i/./<- //,.,.',•/-..- ,„ Omm, /„ y ,-„ v , w; ,, /// ,. /<7/ 

the petals rlosed. 


b* Front View of ,/ mI) flower. 

,*!^^^A -^J/h<;irt shaped . 

H 27a- numerous Stamina in the 
<vrit<7- oi the nude timer. 


• E i \[,K FLOWER. 

<) . -4 . Stamen mamuieJ . 


io. 27/<- rruetinim/ Pollen . 


> i 


-n.Ji.iok View o/'.i rhn.ilo /lower. 

12. Front View or'./ female flower 

l3 Vie Five Totals oftlie female flower sejwate 

Reiwialo puij- . 

l J . t Tri.-iu/ii.l list/.'aa:, in the 
oe/rr.v ,■/ 'the female il.<wer. 

l."> . One of these sep.ante 

7?u ''''■ •■/.tf //,,., /.,,.<, 

.ftumw . two tuvJeJ rff-nbi/ 
'V>7<- i-ery short. 

17 .Hie o'talA support/no theRmdr. 
Flowers, didwtomous or forked . 

iH._l Le<if. 


//ff //'///// //„■ . 

Heart sliaped. 

16 . A Thret-wiiUfei Serd-Vefstl . 

I.ondon.fubUsh.d hyDT Thornton .Jlarrh i.zfa ' 

£j^^i.»yW<- at the base ev' 
alHtocuutr iapstJe. 

Betats ar'tfit- ivrvBa t'adim ■ 

fdldwaU sculp 

■ ■ 

.-I " I 

Fr/,- Tltrwtr* 

i ■>■ i/<-/ . 

Ifrtti'ti .<•<-////> 

* -.F .i.'. ■*•/-- 

■ -:,' 

'■ v & 

//V V /-//////?• t ///'//'/•/:'//•// /^y- .///////■- /////// ; 


2ifa/r Flower. 
Natural Stub . 

at the base of dit Sbmtum 
<y' aaai Flt'irt. 

l.Z.Ghonos f'ermuu} tho (h/y.r 3. 4.6. tZuino.t .*;' dio (oroili . 

w/uoA Jij'erui tno Mal< flowers. 



J.?. (iLuuo ,^ the C*b*.3.+6.& (7!u/no.>oj'(orolLi. 

' tyfadam/- S wr/'/r'/rj/r/' /r////r/ r 7 >■///,;,/ r // /// 

MUIer Jo/. 

/.oii.fon PtAbLshdby h r rh<tmt.m. DecTjjftff. 


df/IOf ,»•////'. 


I ■ 


Edwards del. 

L>n,lon .Publislu-,1 by IX lliornton. . Nov'. 1 .1808 '. 

Warner scalp. 

'i ■■ 

////' )' /f///f/ 

Vr . //f"//'f/:/ /'// /^v' .///////' 

<// / 

Z^W^V.'V'// r/r/. 


•__ /////- /yyy/ < 

Warner stulf 




/jM ■■■ * ■ I .-4 


Jlisrjrual Flvwer, having 6 Starmrut a/isi 3 pistilta 

Uniseacual Flower, kavin,] tmb i ; fUOmina: 


//////'///// // 

/////// ,/V 

llrii<lt1Si'll dd 

J.rhJmt ruilu-iu.l b\ D? rturMcri .luiu- J.lflic 




■ "i.= r- • 


Mushroom m its u.liu/iooJ 

The JPilsus, or Cap. 

27ic o'il/s. or J..ti,iolhr. 

Miller Jo/. 

^4n hi w>< rntol Jet ti> n . 

( '■'/,/,/ >'r//./ f ///////,:*// '*'.t;rr ( /'///////'// < 

JL.ul sculp. 

London. Published bv l> r 77iorrrton.J)oo r ij.8oS . 


.*■ i 








Monandria one Stamen. 

Diandria two Stamina. 

Triandria three Stamina. 

Tetrandria four Stamina. 

Pentandria , . . five Stamina. 

Hexandria six Stamina. 

VII. Heptandria seven Stamina. 

VIII. Octandria eight Stamina. 

IX. Enneandria nine Stamina. 

X. Decandria ten Stamina. 

XI. Dodecandria twelve to nineteen Stamina. 

XII. Polyandria twenty or more Stamina. 

XIII. Cryptogamia concealed Stamina. 


I. Orders taken from the Number of Pi st ilia. 

I. Monogynia one Pistillum. 

II. Digynia two Pistilla. 

III. Trigynia three Pistilla. 

IV. Tetragynia four Pistilla. 

V. Pentagynia fire Pistilla. 

VI. Hexagynia six Pistilla. 

VII. Heptagynia seven Pistilla. 

VIII. Octogynia eight Pistilla. 

IX. Enneagynia nine Pistilla. 

X. Decagynia ten Pistilla. 

XL Dodecagynia twelve to nineteen Pistilla. 

XII. Polygynia twenty, or more Pistilla. 

Class Cryptogamia has the natural orders, I 


II. Orders taken from some curious particularity in the Stamina. 

XIII. Didynamia four Stamina, two long, two short. 

XIV. Tetradynamia ... six Stamina, four long, two short. 

XV. Icosandria \ tw ™P> or mow Stamina, inserted on the 

L Calyx or Corolla. 

XVI. Monadelphia. . . . filaments united in one body. 

XVII. Diadelphia filaments united, forming two bodies. 

XVIII. Polyadelphia . . . {^^s United ' f ° rming three ° r more 

XIX. Syngenesia five anthers united. 

XX. Gynandria Stamina arising from the Pistil. 

XXI. Moncecia. fStamina apart from the Pistil on the same 

\ plant. 

XXII Dimcia fStamina apart from the Pistil on different 
I plants. 

XXIII. Polygamia bisexual flowers, and unisexual. 

, Filices. II. Musci. III. Alga. IV. Fungi. 


I. The Class IV. Tetrandria, being a numerous one, Linnaeus chose to separate it into two, and an opportunity presented itself from the 

consideration of the differences which occur in plants having four stamina, from the proportion of these. Didynamia expresses this 
difference ; and the flowers are either ringent or personate, a natural tribe. But as all the ringent flowers are not included in the class 
Didynamia, some coming under Class II. Diandria, there can be no good reason for not making this real division of a class into an 
Order. The System hence becomes more easy and regular, and in fact frequently, more natural. 

II. The Class VI. Hexandria, also readily separates into two parts, from the like consideration of the proportion in the stamina, and Tetra- 

dynamia contains the natural tribe of cruciform plants. 

III. The Class XIII. Polyandria, also readily divides into two parts, from the consideration of the insertion of the stamina, and one of 
these, the Icosandria, of Linnaeus, possesses many edible fruits, but as it is not altogether a natural class, therefore no one can regret 
seeing this part distinguished as an order. 

IV. In the Monadelphia of Linnaeus, many of the numerical names, which had been used to characterize the Classes, are employed to dis- 
tinguish the Orders, or subdivisions, as Pentandria, Decandria, &c. and hence arises a confusion unavoidably perplexing to the young 
student, and which our Method, as is evident, completely removes. The same observation applies to the Classes Diadelphia, Polyadel- 
phia, Gynandria, Monctcia, Dicecia, where the same (may I call it so) impropriety occurs. This class in Linnaeus is not natural, 
but being made into orders, many of them then become natural as orders, as the Columnifer^e. 

V. The Papilionaceous Flowers, as they are generally termed, form the Order Decandria in the Class Diadelphia of Linnaeus; but the 

author, unwilling, as it would seem, to make any breach in so natural an assemblage of plants, has so far deviated from the principles of 
his System, as to refer to that Class several genera, which strictly belong to the preceding Class, being in fact Monadelphious. This 
inconvenience is entirely obviated in the present scheme, where Monadelphia and Diadelphia constitute two successive Orders in our 
Class X. Decandria. 

VI. Polyadelphia is a small, and, as Doctor Smith observes, " rather an unnatural class." Most persons are shocked to see Citrus the 
orange, in this class, and not in the Icosandria class; for Linnaeus describes it of the Class XVIII. Polyadelphia, Order III. Icos- 
andria. Now in our Reformed Sexual System, it comes under Class XIII. Polyandria, Order Icosandria, in juxta-position with 
other edible fruits, in the subdivision Polyadelphia. 

VII. Class V. Pentandria, a very numerous class, is subdivided by Syngenesia, and so formed into two classes by Linnaeus, the latter 
of which, however, as containing an order Monogamia, is not therefore altogether a natural class. We obviate this by making Syn- 
genesia an order, and the subdivision Polygamia to contain the natural tribe of compound flowers; whilst, under another subdivision, 
Monogamia, many plants, not having compound flowers, arrange themfelves. 

VIII. Against Gynandria, which Doctor Smith calls, "an odd and miscellaneous class," there lies the same objection, as we observed 
above, as against the Class Diadelphia, the numerical names of Classes being applied to Orders. In our scheme, Class II. Diandria, 
has an Order Gynandria, which contains the natural tribe of Orchises; and thus the mind is delighted to see a natural assemblage 
embraced in an order, if not in a class. The separation of the remainder cannot be regretted, as not possessing amongst each other the 
smallest affinity. 

IX. Monolcia is a miscellaneous class, and borrows the names of its secondary divisions from most of the other classes, as Monandria, Di- 
andria, &c. nay even from Monadelphia, Syngenesia, and Gynandria ; for all these become, in Linn^eus's Sexual System, Orders. 
In our scheme, Class Triandria, Order Monacia, contains mostly grasses, hence we retain this natural assemblage in the same class 
at least, if not in the same order. 

X. Diozcia. The same remarks apply here, as in Monozcia. 

XL Polygamia subdivides the classes Monxtia and Dicecia ; therefore in the logic of science it is in reality an order. 



Pascitur in vivis livor, post fata quiescit 
tum suis ex meritis cuique tuetur honos. 

Some apology is certainly necessary, after any endeavour to reform so celebrated and established a System, as the Sexual System of the illus- 
trious Linn^us. Many alterations in this system have been attempted. The enlightened pupil of Linnaeus, Thunberg, abolished the classes 
XX. Gynandria, XXI. Monacia, XXII. Di<ecia, and XXIII. Polygamic Gmelin, Professor at Gottingen, to the alterations introduced 
by Thunberg, ,n publishing a new edition of Linnaeus's Systema Nature, added the abolition of Class XII. Icosandria ; and the no less cele- 
brated Dr. Smith, preserving the rest of the System entire, has abolished Order V. Monogamia in Class IX. Syngenesia, and Class XIII. Po- 
lygamic ■ To his Class Polygamic" says Dr. Smith, « many students of tropical plants justly objected in his lifetime, and he, as well as 
his son, listened to their observations." Dr. Withering, in his Arrangement of British Plants, has followed the system of Gmelin. Pro- 
fessor Marty*, speaking of the changes introduced by Schreber, in his new edition of Linnaeus's Genera Plantarum, says, that his reduc- 
tion of Class XX. Gynandria, appears " reasonable," yet the singularity of the Order Diandria surely demanded a separate place to itself. 
But when he comes to mention the incorporation by Gmelin of the Class Icosandria into the Polyandria, he declares this change to be 
" abominable." 

I am aware, that venturing to reform in such a degree the Sexual System, as I have done, will bring upon me, with some, much severe 
reproach. I am conscious, indeed, as well as others, that the credit of the Sexual System of Linnaeus, as an invention, surpasses all power 
of praise, and hence has found enthusiastic admirers ; and with timid hands I have ventured to take to pieces the superstructure he raised, 
and build up from the old materials, which I have carefully and religiously preserved, a new ed,p,ce, suited to modern improvement and 
convenience; hoping, however, that those who may, hereafter, publish the works of Linn^us, will edite the Sexual System as delivered by 
himself, and not bring forward, in the works said to be those of Linnaeus, what he never either thought or wrote. For a full defence of the 
Reformed Sexual System vide my « Practical Botany, being a New Illustration of the Genera of Plants, with dissections of each Genus," 
where this subject has been particularly considered and discussed. 

In a word, as by system is only meant a plan to facilitate the acquirement of the knowledge of plants, the more easy this is contrived 
to accomplish the proposed end, the better such a system will be accounted; and I have endeavoured so to contrive this, that I hope no longer 
any very great obstacles can arise in the way of the student, and that this will plead my excuse with a discerning and indulgent public for 
venturing to step out of the beaten path, to attempt the reformation of a system which has conferred immortal honour upon the inventor, 
and received the general plaudits and admiration of the learned throughout Europe. It appeared to me more advisable ^ reform the whole,' 
than to make any partial amendments; either to adopt the system as delivered to us by Linnaeus, or to have the present system, as erected 
out of the materials of the old ; a system which I hope may not moulder, like the other systems,* into the sand of which they were composed, 
but resemble the youthful Phosnix arising from the ashes of its parent, or as a rock in the midst of the ocean, may remain until « the wreck 
of matter and the crush of worlds." 

It is certainly a great satisfaction for me to find, that although the learned and venerable Professor Martyn has long openly disapproved 
of the changes made in the Sexual System by the several Reformers, yet he writes to me— 

' I by no means disapprove of your new attempt to render the Sexual System, by the manner in which you have done it, an easier 
medium of attaining a knowledge of Plants; and have been long convinced in my own mind, that we strive in vain to unite a natural with 
an artificial arrangement. Upon your plan, I see no impropriety in bringing the orchibe*. into the Second Class; nor can I even object to 
your altering, as you have done, the separated classes of Linnaeus, Icosandria and Poltandria. Your method is ably considered through- 
out; for along with you I hold our great Master's System as sacred, and can never approve of those greater alterations" (he might have said 
mutilations) " which some of his pupils have made, so differently is to be estimated the conduct of persons engaged in the same object." 
The Rev. Doctor Milne, the learned author of " A Botanical Dictionary," writes to me— 

« Your Reformed Scheme of the Linncean System has my entire approbation. It possesses all the admirable and elegant simplicity of 
that of Rivinus, which has always been a great favourite with me, from the steady adherence of the author to the Principles of his Method 
and is eminently adapted for practice. Your remarks respecting the Sexual System are truly excellent; your New Illustration admirable." 

Doctor Shaw, of the British Museum, a gentleman not less eminent as a botanist, than a naturalist, declares, » that he believes had 
Linnaeus been alive, the Reformed Sexual System would be that which he himself would have instantly adopter- 
Similar are the flattering opinions also of several other distinguished botanists, who have expressed their approval of the Reformed Sexual 
System. But with extreme diffidence I fubmit it to the judgment of the world. 

• No. les, than 6fty-two system, of Botany have been published, several of :hem of very considerable merit, bnt not practically good, hence most of them are now forgotten. 










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